The Ch'an Dao Martial Arts Association Badge is based upon a instructions from Master Chan Tin Sang (1924-1993) and is a combination of Buddhist, Daoist and Confucian symbols commonly found within traditional Hakka village temples, folk-religions and martial arts. The graphic art that brought this imagery to life was provided by Diane Wyles. Shaded roundel symbology developed in early Chinese history from depictions of the phases of the moon as viewed throughout the year. Whenever a king or emperor took power in ancient China, one of the first priorities was to set the calendar correctly for the people to follow. As the lunar calendar was used in ancient China to define the length of year, the correct recording of the phases of the moon throughout each month was an important astronomical skill that correctly defined the seasons, and brought structure and solidity to society. This allowed farmers to correctly plan the agricultural year, knowing when to plant, nurture and harvest the crops that fed the nation. Eventually this moon symbology was adapted to represent the theory of 'Yin' (陰) or 'shade', and Yang (陽) or 'light'. Although recognising a unified basis underlying all of existence (太極 - Tai Ji or 'Grand Ridge-pole), the principle of the Yin-Yang Theory teaches that all of manifested reality is comprised of a life-giving force or energy (氣 - Qi) flowing through it. This force exists in all things to varying degrees, and through its measurement, either a 'Yin' or a 'Yang' reading can be accurately ascribed to particular phenomena. For the martial artist, it is important to 'balance' the 'inner' bodily qi-flow with that of the universal or 'outer' qi-flow for the maintenance of good physical health, and harmonious relations in society. Furthermore, when combat is viewed through this model, it becomes clear that self-defence is the rapid requirement of the fast interchange of Yin and Yang martial technique. The mind must be calm (represented by the rounded outer ring of the badge taken from the Five Ranks Teaching of the Cao Dong School of Ch'an Buddhism), so that balanced qi-energy flows smoothly and calmly through the body and environment (symbolised by the two 'fish' shape images within the centre - the black fish is 'Yin' whilst the white fish is 'Yang'). The image of the martial artist over-lays the entire design, is practising a movement found within the martial art of Taijiquan (太極拳) and a number of Changquan (長拳) - or 'long Fist' Styles known as ‘Single Whip’ (單鞭 - Dan Bian) - two arts that comprise the foundation of the Ch'an Dao Martial System. By practising and uniting the inner (Yin) and outer (Yang) qi energy, all is brought into a proper relationship through the awareness of mind, and correct positioning of the body. When qi energy flows unhindered and in the right direction – there can be no violence as greed, hatred, delusion are permanently ‘uprooted’ from the mind and body. In the older symbology involving the ‘double fish’ structure representing Yin and Yang, the two halves do not contain the ‘single eye’ as is seen in more contemporary designs. In modern designs, the black (Yin) fish possesses a single ‘white’ (Yang) eye, and the white (Yang) fish has a single ‘black’ (Yin) eye. This draws the observer to the fact with the depths Yin – Yang exists in principle, and that in the depths of Yin – Yang exists in essence. In other words, no matter whether the flowing qi energy it is expressed through the old or new versions of the Yin-Yang Symbol (太極圖 – Tai Ji Tu) Yin always transitions into Yang, and Yang always transitions into Yin. The badge is traditionally worn over the left chest area.