For years I taught class of gongfu in a private and public capacity. The ‘private’ aspect involved my family’s Ch’an Dao School which involved a rented hall and two-hours of gongfu training on a Sunday morning. Initially, this only involved members of the British Born Chinese community in Sutton who were related to us (the Sai Kung Chan Clan), or who were associated through business, warfare or any other historical means. Just being ethnically ‘Chinese’ was not enough to train in our gongfu hall as we are of ‘Hakka’ Chinese ethnicity. This is the old way and very different to how many Westerners mistakenly view traditional Chinese culture. In this context, Chinese people of clans considered ‘enemies’ were termed ‘foreigners’ and excluded from consideration. However, although this was the reality, Master Chan Tin Sang (1924-1993) was of the opinion that we had to find a way of ‘evolving’ beyond this feudalistic attitude.
As more and more Westerners started enquiring about training, when I was promoted to the Head of the Ch’an Dao School, I decided to open our doors to a class of people we did not know and were not related to. This also included other Chinese people we did not know regardless of their surnames. Around this time (the late 1990s), I also started being approached by Mainland Chinese people living in the UK, who explained to me about how ‘New’ China was thoroughly ‘modern’ and how this attitude of openness and inclusiveness was being used in China to teach all foreign visitors about the beauty of Chinese culture and what it has to offer to the contemporary world! As this change in attitude dove-tailed with what Master Chan Tin Sang had in mind, I decided to transform our family style of Hakka gongfu and ‘revolutionise’ the way in which we managed our martial arts lineage!
Although I was brought-up in the old way, I never felt comfortable with its exclusiveness and ethnic clannishness. Although I was accepted as someone of mixed ethnicity – this acceptance only extended to my immediate Hakka clan and Chinese people who knew me. When outside of this group, I was subject to this ‘exclusive’ attitude and marked as a ‘foreigner’ who was not welcome within the inner workings of the Chinese community. When this happened – I would scurry back into my cultural safety zone knowing I had just experienced something very unsavoury! After 1949, Mainland China thoroughly rejected this feudal attitude and embraced ‘Internationalism’ which is designed to open-up the beauty of Chinese culture for anyone who would like to benefit from it! Since the early 2000s, I have defriended many Mainland Chinese people (living and working in the UK and in China via the internet), and have even started various academic projects and translation initiatives. Indeed, our family gongfu has evolved because of these experiences from an insular, feudal entity to a local practice premised upon universal principles!
(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)
Persisting in three-hours of Hard Qigong (硬氣功 - Ying Qi Gong) exercise every day, 95-year-old Tang Lixian is still very healthy. On the morning of the 11th, when a thief attempted to rob what he thought was a defenceless old man on the 115 Bus – the thief was beaten off his feet by this 95-year-old man! Yesterday, when reporters from the Chongqing Morning News met the old man - Tang Lixian - the kind-hearted man was a little worried that he might have really hurt the thief!
Yesterday afternoon, Mr. Tang, who lives in Yubei, was watching TV at home. If he hadn't mentioned it himself, it would be hard to imagine that he was 95-years old just by his appearance. He has a childlike face, which is full of energy, he sits with his chest straight, and when he stands up he is like a mighty green pine. Facing the reporter, Mr. Tang was a little worried. He was concerned about whether he had injured the thief. "You were punishing evil - promoting good - and not purposely fighting." Said his smiling 71-year-old disciple - Tang Yongxian (唐永先).
When Tang Yongxian was 63 years old, he began to practice martial arts with Mr. Tang Lixian. Master Tang explained at the time that true Chinese martial arts are designed for health development and self-defence and that offensive action is strictly forbidden! This is the high moral standard that the Tang Clan has always uphold over hundreds of years of martial self-cultivation. All disciples of Tang-family martial arts ‘swear’ to uphold this moral precept! Once we explained that the young man he tackled is fit, strong and unhurt by the action he took to ‘limit’ the criminal’s violent outburst – Master Tang then agreed to grant us an interview.
This is what Master Tang experienced on the day in question. After 10 am on the 11th, Master Tang took the 115 Bus from Xiangshui Road Station to Caiyuanba. After getting on the Bus, there were a lot of people and the seats were already full of old people. So, Master Tang stood near the front of the Bus holding the rail. On the right side of Master Tang there is a young man standing with his back to him. He stood very close to Master Tang and he would not break the inappropriate bodily contact. "About a minute later, I felt that someone was pulling my wallet." Suddenly, as the Bus bumped along the road, the young man placed his hand in Master Tang’s pocket and attempted to extract his wallet. Although these movements were well practiced and very carefully carried-out – Master Tang’s years of sensitivity-training in the martial arts enabled him to understand exactly what was happening as events unfolded!
At the exact moment the young man ‘lifted’ Master Tang’s wallet from his trouser-pocket – Master Tang landed a punch enthused with immense internal energy that took the strength out of the young man’s legs – causing him to crumple to the floor with a look of surprise on his face! In the right-hand of the young man was Master Tang’s wallet clear for all to see! The punch had landed on the young man’s right shoulder-blade as he was trying to run away. This is why Master Tang decided to take the energy out of the young thief's legs! Afterwards, there was a sense of high-energy and profound shock throughout the interior of the Bus!
As the young man began to struggle on the ground, Master Tang dropped into Horse Stance and ‘pinned’ the thief to the floor whilst everyone in the Bus became aware of what was going on! Master Tang had single-handled protected the public good by tackling a notorious thief who had caused untold suffering to the masses! Master Tang held the thief in a painful submission hold until the Bus reached Nanping Station – when both alighted – with Master Tang retaining control. The people gathered around and saw that the thief was in tears and obviously ‘sorry’ for what he had done. Many begged Master Tang not to take him to the Police Station – but to tell him off and give him a chance to ‘reform’. Although Master Tang was robbed in a similar manner twenty-years previously – he decided to give the young man a severe warning and talking to before letting him go.
Although some people thought the young man might have suffered broken bones – Master Tang explained that he emitted just enough strength in his punch to inhibit the young man’s internal energy flow in a temporary manner – and never had a thought of doing any permanent damage. Master Tang stated that everyone can make a mistake and equally everyone can reform if they are helped by others! Obviously, if this young man does not reform after being granting a reprieve, then we shall take him to the Police Station and then he will suffer the consequences of his selfish actions – explained Master Tang – who has tackled a number of thieves in the past. When he was eighty-years old, he came to the aid of a woman who was being attacked by a robber – again knocking the thief to the ground with a single punch! He explained that robbing is wrong and that the general public must defend themselves whilst retaining their virtue and dignity in the process. Do not lower yourself to the status of the thief but remain aloof, kind and considerate.
Master Tang started practicing ‘Hard Qigong’ when aged 71-years-old. As early as 2007, the Chongqing Morning News reported on Tang Lixian’s street exercises. At that time, he would forcibly strike his head with an iron rod. "I decided to practice ‘Hard Qigong’ qi to strengthen my body." In 1978, Master Tang retired from working at the Chongqing Bus Plant. At that time, he suffered from rheumatism. Over the next ten years, his emphysema also became more and more serious, and he had to cough and spit up many times a day. In 1991, the 71-year-old Master decided to change. He visited a local park and participated in a ‘Hard Qigong’ training class. As he was very talented in this style, he was promoted to a more ‘enhanced’ training at a different training hall. Despite many difficulties and set-backs – Master Tang did not give-up and his determination eventually won-through. After ten-years of training and testing – Old Man Tang was eventually recognised as a ‘Master’ in his own right! Just prior to this time, all of Master Tang’s ailments and injuries eventually cleared-up and all disease left his body!
Due to his success the 71-year-old Tang Yongxian has followed Tang Lixian to learn martial arts for eight-years. During these eight-years, his emphysema and bone hyperplasia have been miraculously healed. Interestingly, ‘71’ is also the age Tang Lixian also started to learn ‘Hard Qigong.’ Master Tang can stand for long periods of time in a low Horse Stance and his body can withstand forceful (and repeated) blows to any area. Although 95-years-old, Master Tang can also produce tremendous internal power! Sometimes, his neighbours look on amazed when Master Tang is training outside – but everyone is impressed with his martial arts mastery! In over twenty-years of training – no one has been able to ‘hurt’ or ‘knock-down’ Master Tang who has become something of a cultural treasure! Indeed, when much younger martial artists attempt to strike Master Tang in the abdomen or chest, etc, they invariably damage their own hand or foot! In the meantime, on the odd occasion Master Tang is still able to attract a large crowd when he decides to practice in a public space! (Reporter Wang Zihan [王梓涵], intern Zhang Jia [張嘉])
Chinese Source Article:
Years of training in ideal circumstances - should prepare a practitioner to defend themselves in the most uncomfortable of circumstances! Real combat is certainly nothing like the Movies - where the lead-actors move with perfectly time 'Form' movemets that strike-home with bewildering precision and devstating effectiveness! After-all, the perpetuation of this mythology is exactly WHY we spend our hard-earned money to go to the cinema in the first-place! Here, a Chinese man in his fifties is attacked in his property by a much younger and masked man using a club or stick. The criminal himself seems trained in martial arts - but his criminality is not the subject of this post. No. I would like you to understand and appreciate how the victim of the attack managed to psychologically and physically come to terms with the intrusion, threat and attck and 'equal' the attacker who definitely possessed the advantage at the beginning - but gradually lost the element of suprise as the resistance continued and and generated the moral 'rightness' that over-turned the entire surprise of the situation! The older man is said to be a Master of Northern Praying Mantis. Today, his gongfu style saved his life!
Every genuine martial arts style from North China is quite often linked to the Shaolin Temple of Henan – or contains techniques that are associated with temple’s gongfu training. The Chinese term ‘罗汉’ (Luo Han) refers to the Indian Pali term ‘Arahant’ - and in this instance includes the so-called ‘Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) - an ‘enlightened’ martial art which Bodhidharma brought from South India to China around 520 CE. An ‘Arahant’ is a man or woman who has achieved enlightened within the Early School of Buddhism – represented by the Theravada School today (and its Pali Cannon). This article presents exercises that are often linked to ‘squat-kicking’ in various styles – or exercises used to a) build the external (physical) structures and strength of the entire leg area, and b) develop the ‘internal’ awareness of how energy and bodyweight manoeuvre through the centre of the bone marrow. Quite often the exercises remain the same or are only slightly altered to build the foundation for the next stage of training. Below is the ‘Arahant’ exercises for building ‘internal’ strength, power and endurance through the entire bone-structure of each leg. As the ‘circular’ structure of the joints and bones are incorporated – the ‘iron vest’ armouring of the legs is also developed. This develops the advanced internal ability to harmlessly absorb, reject or deflect any incoming power from a hostile blow.
Lifting pose: Standing up naturally, with feet shoulder-width apart, arms relaxed and hanging, all ten fingers slightly bent, eyes level, and the whole body relaxed. Get rid of distracting thoughts, concentrate on the pubic area. Breathing should be natural, slow, deep, and even, with 7 breaths as appropriate, with blood flowing through the whole body. (figure 1)
1) Stand upright: hold both hands on the top of the head from the side of the body, cross your fingers with the back of your palms facing up, and inhale at the same time, then turn your palms toward the sky, do not touch the top of your head, slowly bend your knees and squat, and exhale at the same time; When squatting, the head and body are upright, do not lean forward, bend the knees as far as possible not to exceed the toes, intend to guard the Yongquan (涌泉) point, then slowly stand up, and inhale at the same time, squat 7 times, so the blood flows through the whole body. (Picture 2～3)
2) Sunrise Over Eastern Mountain: Make a fist with both hands, flexing the elbows and raising them on both sides of your shoulders. Still in the squat rises slowly, with breathing, 7 times is appropriate, the rest of the requirements are the same as above. (Picture 4～5)
3) Worshipping Buddha in Ten Directions: Put your hands together in front of your chest, palms together, and do the same squat slowly and rise 7 times. Breathing is the same as other requirements. (Picture 6～7)
4. Embrace the moon with your arms: hold your arms in a round shape, with your fingers facing each other, palms facing inward, and do squatting and rising slowly for 7 times. (Picture 8-9)
5) Two Dragons 'Spit-Out' Pearls: Make a fist with both hands, elbows with both arms flat in front of the chest, in balance, with fists facing down, still slowly squatting and raising 7 times, and the rest are the same as above. (Picture 10-11)
6) Swallow Yin - Build Yang: Fold your hands behind your waist with your palms facing outwards. Do the same slow squat and rise 7 times. The rest of the requirements are the same as above. (Picture 12～13)
7) Ten Thousand Dharmas Return to a Single Source: Fold your palms on top of each other, palms facing inward, place your the hands on the lower abdomen and down into the expand the attention into the pubic area. Squat up 7 times with slow breathing to keep your pubic field. It also requires that the head be straight and the knees bend but toes. (Pictures 14-15)
Closing style: The method and essentials are the same as the starting style. Key points of Arahant Seven-Postures: When squatting up, do not bend your knees forward over your toes, let alone bend your head down, keep your eyes straight, keep your body centered, and keep your spine as straight as possible.
Chinese Language Article:
Translator’s Note: I knew of Master Hai Deng before he became famous for his martial arts skills. Indeed, he was considered a very devout Ch’an Buddhist Master whose understanding had been tested and confirmed by Master Xu Yun (1840-1959). He happened to come from the Sichuan area which has a number of Ch’an Temples renowned for their martial arts practice. The combining of martial arts and spirituality is very common in China and does not only happen at the Shaolin Temple in Henan. However, Master Hai Deng once tested his martial arts skills against another disciple of Master Xu Yun – namely ‘Master Ti Guang’ [体光] (1924-2005) - and lost the bout. There was no ego or anger involved and both monastics behaved with humility and respect toward one another. Master Hai Deng was very grateful that weaknesses in his physical technique had been exposed so that he could work at strengthening these areas and enhance his understanding in this art. More to the point, Master Xu Yun fully trusted Master Hai Deng to run monasteries as the Head Monk and teach the Buddhist Sutras to the monastics and visiting laity! Of course, with his visit to the West, and his involvement with the modern media, rumours and misunderstandings developed that were not the fault of a simple Buddhist monk. It is the world of dust that is to blame – and the Dharma that Master Hai Deng effectively upheld all his life! ACW (6.7.2021)
Master Hai Deng was originally just an unknown poor monk. Because of a coincidence, it seems that he became famous overnight and a household name. He became a heroic figure that people talked about. This all started with a news documentary called "Sichuan Unusual Events Record" (四川奇趣录 - Si Chuan Qi Qu Lu). It reported that in 1979, the Great Wall Film Company of Hong Kong and Emei Film Studio were preparing to jointly shoot a large-scale news documentary about unusual people from Sichuan. When the film crew was shooting at Baoguang (宝光 ) Ch’an Temple, a famous temple in western Sichuan, they heard that a martial arts-practicing monk - named ‘Hai Deng’ - lived in seclusion in the mountains of Jiangyou, spending his days and nights deep within seated meditation. After searching the remote areas, they eventually found Master Hai Deng on the mountainside near Chonghua Town, Jiangyou County.
Master Hai Deng lived in a simple hut built on the mountainside. Although the thatched hermitage is simple - it has a very Ch’an-like name -"Benyuan Jingshe" (本愿精舍) - or ‘Source of the Will Abode’. This name was devised by Master Hai Deng himself. The interior space of the hut is very low, narrow and small. The only items inside are a meditation stool with a mosquito net, a small stove for cooking, a dining table, and a few bowls and chopsticks. Why is there no bed? It turned out that in order to pursue the true meaning of Buddhism and martial arts, Master Hai Deng did not sleep in a bed for decades, and sat upright in meditation at night. From this point of view, Master Hai Deng can be regarded as a generation of Buddhist monastics truly living outside the world.
Master Hai Deng was invited to the Baoguang Temple to take part in the filming of the TV show. When he finished performing martial arts, this esteemed, elderly monk granted interviews with the monks and the local martial arts-loving young people associated with Baoguang Temple – who asked his advice about meditation and self-defence practice. He was devoted to teaching, and he was not fatigued in anyway despite his age - and was able to write poems on the spot. If Master Hai Deng's posthumous work "Shaolin Cloud Water Poem Collection" (少林云水诗集 - Shao Lin Yun Shui Shi Ji) is examined, his improvised "Ten Poems of Baoguang Temple" are included, the construction style of which is considered quite high. The term ‘云水’ (Yun Shui) or ‘Coud Water’) is a term used to refer to a Buddhist monastic who wanders from place to place – like a leaf blowing in the wind – or a drop of water falling like rain. (Translator: See Hexagram 56 ‘旅’ (Lu) of the ‘Classic of Change’ (Yijing) - the ‘Wanderer’ to explain this situation).
After the release of “Sichuan Unusual Events Record", Master Hai Deng's reputation gradually became apparent. In 1982, the head monk of Shaolin Temple - Shi Xingzheng (释行正) - sent a monk to Sichuan to study at the Buddhist Academy. Since Master Hai Deng had visited the Shaolin Temple several times before, Shi Xingzheng decided to personally visit the ‘Source of the Will Abode’ to pay a return visit to Master Hai Deng. Whilst discussing Ch’an, Master Hai Deng expressed the intention of going to Shaolin and formally becoming a humble ‘Disciple’ of the famous temple. What can Shi Xingzheng say? He could only welcome such a visit. Master Hai Deng took six disciples and went to Shaolin to live and study with them for a time. Many of the Shaolin monks thought it a happy occasion to meet with Master Hai Deng – a Ch’an monk who seemed to have come from another (earlier) time! In 1983, the movie "Shaolin Temple" starring Jet Li was very popular. "Shaolin martial arts" immediately became a cultural heritage sought after and admired by the people.
In November 1982, Xiao Dingpei (肖定沛) - a disciple of Master Hai Deng - wrote an article about Master Hai Deng practicing Ch’an in the Shaolin Temple, and had it published. Outsiders did not know that Master Hai Deng was only a visiting ‘Disciple’ of the Shaolin Temple. This misunderstanding was compounded by the fact that many had seen Master Hai Deng perform three extraordinary qigong exercised in the “Sichuan Unusual Events Record" documentary – and mistakenly believed he had learned these abilities at the Shaolin Temple! This led to the further confusion that Master Hai Deng was a Ch’an monk ordained at the Shaolin Temple (he was not) and that his martial arts skills were learned at the Shaolin (they were not). It has to be made clear that Master Hai Deng never personally claimed any of this and was usually the last to hear about each rumour!
Furthermore, a well-known author concocted a biography of Master Hai Deng – which described him as a Shaolin monk – and even that he was the ‘Head Monk’ (Abbot) of the Shaolin Temple! Then, in 1983, the Beijing Evening News added to the flames, serializing this so-called ‘biography’ of Master Hai Deng Master! Master Hai Deng was said to have only ‘reluctantly’ taken the post of Shaolin Abbot whilst he became the focus of media attention. Master Hai Deng was also invited to attend the 2nd Spring Festival Gala held by CCTV in 1984, where he performed qigong stunts. In 1984, the Central News Film Studio found Master Hai Deng and produced the documentary "Dharma Master Hai Deng of Shaolin" (少林海灯法师 - Shao Lin Hai Deng Fa Shi). .
Needless to say, this film was a big success. The photography team was very excited and decided to continue to encourage others to organize the staff to write a script about the legendary life of Master Hai Deng! Unwilling to be left behind, CCTV quickly joined forces with the Chengdu Foreign Affairs Office and invited Master Hai Deng and his disciples - Fan Yinglian (范应莲), Li Xingyou (李兴友) and others to shoot the TV series "Buddhist Careers" (佛门生涯 - Fo Men Sheng Ya). With all this publicity, Master Hai Deng became a defacto Shalin monk, Shaolin Dharma-Master and Shaolin martial arts expert! As he was quiet and humble, he did not take any notice of what was happening in the outside world – but merely ‘responded’ to circumstances as matters arose, He neither confirmed nor denied all the rumours but remain detached from it all. Although sometimes criticised for this ‘silence’ in the face of this disinformation, Master Hai Deng’s behaviour was ‘correct’ from a monastic point of view, as he remained ‘non-attached’ from the ignorance of others and never made any false claims about his own history or abilities.
In 1985, he accompanied a Chinese film delegation when visiting the United States, setting off a wave of "Shaolin martial arts euphoria" in throughout America; he was also invited to teach the Dharma in the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in the USA... In the meantime, the Shaolin Temple monk - Shi Xingzheng - expressed his dissatisfaction at these developments. This view was supported in many areas around Dengfeng County, where the Shaolin Temple is located in Henan. The Shaolin Temple emphasises the Cao Dong lineage and is very strict. Only a few hundred men are chosen as fully ordained Shaolin monks at any one time, and they must go through a vigorous selection process far more difficult than anything hinted at in the movies! The Shaolin colleges surrounding the Shaolin Temple are places for sharing a certain strata of Shaolin Ch’an and martial arts knowledge – and are not considered the Shaolin Temple proper. There is a clear distinction. Master Hai Deng was not an ordained Shaolin monk of the Shaolin Temple – although he had been allowed to worship in the temple grounds – and he had not learned the ‘inner’ martial arts of the Shaolin Temple. The rumours suggested that he had – and herein lies all the subsequent trouble!
Due to all the confusion and trouble caused by these misunderstandings, the Education Department of the Dengfeng County Party Committee issued a statement that according to their records - Master Hai Deng is not the ‘Head Monk’ (Abbot) of Shaolin Temple. This was handed to the Head of the Chinese Buddhist Association - Zhao Puchu (赵朴初) – for clarification (just in case the government records were out of date or otherwise incorrect). Chairman Zhao Puchu wrote a reply on December 16th, 1985. His evaluation of Master Hai Deng in the letter is very objective. There are three main points: first, Master Hai Deng is a highly respected and fully ordained Ch’an Buddhist monk from Sichuan and is the Director of the Chinese Buddhist Association; second, Master Hai Deng is a genuine Master of martial arts; third, the news media's publicity is disrespectful and misleading. The solution proposed by Zhao Puchu is to understand the misleading propaganda, and correct it over-time through education. In this way the mistaken views will come to an end.
Although a statement was issued stating that Master Hai Deng was not the ‘Head Monk’ (Abbot) of the of Shaolin Temple – this fact did not affect his continued “popularity”. In 1986, he was invited to the Shanghai Armed Police Command School to instruct students in the practice of martial arts; He was hired as the general instructor of the PLA Scouts martial arts training team; in 1987, he participated in 20 episodes of the TV series "Dharma Master Hai Deng" filmed by Sichuan TV; In 1988 he settled in the ‘Martial Arts Dharma-Hall Dedicated to Master Hai Deng’ built for him in Jiangyou... But in January 1989, he fell ill and passed away. The ashes of Master Hai Deng were not yet cold when a reporter from Sichuan Daily – named ‘Jing Mou’ (敬某) , published a long report in Beijing’s "Reportage" magazine and Hainan’s "Gold Island" magazine. This article was highly disrespectful and wrongly claimed that Master Hai Deng was a ‘Liar’ and a ‘trickster’ who lived a life of only ‘making money’ out of those he fooled!
Fan Yinglian - a disciple of Master Hai Deng- took Jing Mou to Court in August 1989 for “infringement of reputation”. After investigation, it was found that Master Hai Deng followed the Vinaya Discipline carefully lived a very hard life – this pure and virtuous lifestyle was fully maintained even after he became famous throughout the country. All the offerings sent to him by sincere believers were immediately donated to the local temples and hospitals, and there was nothing left for him personally. However, one of the filmmakers of the "Sichuan Unusual Events Record" documentary came forward and revealed that Master Hai Deng was suspected of cheating when performing the one-finger Ch’an hand-stand where is legs were suspended from the rafters by cloth straps. As a result, the people were in an uproar, and Master Hai Deng’s personal reputation collapsed and he became the object of criticism. Master Hai Deng became both a comedy and a tragedy.
He was originally a poor monk who had left the world of dust, and was without power and money. The reason why he became a "god" was because of the wishful thinking superstitious attitudes of the people who held him up as something he was not; the reason why he was made a "demon" was also because of the same people who had become angry when they discovered their own stupidity in this matter. However, in all fairness, abandoning the dramatic changes in the last ten years of Master Hai Deng’s life, let’s just look at the majority of his life previous to his fame. He did indeed live a legendary life. He was an eminent monk who integrated Buddhism, martial arts, medicine, and literature. All these great achievements are ‘true’ and represent far more than most people achieve in a single life-time. The most commendable thing is that in the last ten years of his life, although he was praised as a god by the people, he could still maintain a hard life of pure and virtuous self-cultivation. He never once broke the monastic rules or abandoned the Vinaya Discipline.
These observations alone deserve the respect of future generations. Of course, the most controversial aspects of Master Hai Deng are of two aspects: 1. Is his Dharma Correct? 2. Is his martial arts authentic? First, is the Dharma of Master Hai Deng correct? Old Tan (老覃 - Lao Tan) thinks it was very high. Furthermore, Master Hai Deng was a disciple of Great Master Master Xu Yun (虚云大师 - Xu Yun Da Shi) [1840-1959] - the ‘True Dharma-Eye of this Generation’! Old Tan added here, that Master Xu Yun was one of the first people who advocated the establishment of the Chinese Buddhist Association. He later became the first honorary president. Master Hai Deng visited Master Xuyun at Zhenru Temple in Yunju Mountain, Jiangxi, and was appreciated by Master Xu Yun. He soon became the ‘Head Monk’ (Abbot) of the Zhenru Temple, with Master Hai Deng being considered an expert lecturer on the the Shurangama Sutra, the Lotus Sutra and so on, by Master Xu Yun. Master Hai Deng was certainly of a generation of very highly accomplished and virtuous Buddhist monks!
Was Master Hai Deng's martial arts of a high quality? Lao Tan again believes that Master Hai Deng was a very great martial arts master! This being the case, then how should we view his legs being suspended from the roof when performing his famous hand-stand? Well, it is to be expected as the Master was 80-years-old at the time! The fact that he could do any of these stunts is truly remarkable! How many 80-year-olds could be turned upside down and suspend their bodyweight on one or two-fingers? Hardly any! Furthermore, Master Hai Deng explained to the film crew that at his advanced age he could not perform the stunts of his youth – but that he had taught his disciples how to do these qigong movements. However, the film crew continued with their disrespectful attitudes and behaviour and literally ‘forced’ Master Hai Deng into performing the stunt himself – and as they wanted him to ‘hold’ the posture for far-longer than was normal – it was their idea that his legs be suspended to the rafters by strips of cloth! Ironically, the head of the film-crew who abused Master Hai Deng in this manner even came forward years later in an attempt to make money by falsely accusing Master Hai Deng of suspending his own legs! According to people who were there – Master Hai Deng was still able to assume the hand-stand on his own prior to his feet being secured to increase the length of time of the demonstration. This is despite the fact that as people naturally age their energy levels change and increase in their profundity and depth. Master ‘turn inward’ and abandon the world of dust!
Chinese Language Article:
The ‘external’ component represented by the numerous ‘gongfu’ styles extant in China – perfects the ‘leverage’ of the joints on the horizontal plane. As this is generated by contracting muscles (which operate through the ‘awareness’ of the positioning of the bones and joints in relation to one another), very high levels of physical fitness and psychological conditioning must be pursued and mastered. This also involves the understanding of ‘torque’ or ‘deliberately’ employed muscular tensions to generate and increase impact. Bodyweight is also used across the horizontal plane – joint, bone, muscle bodyweight and psychological focus build ‘external’ power and erupt this force into a relatively small area of contact through the contacting limb and/or body-part. This type of power is quite often ‘shocking’ to encounter and difficult to recover from once a clean blow has been landed to a vulnerable part of the body. This skill can take five, ten or more years to perfect through traditional Chinese martial arts training (which builds a practitioner’s mind and body from the ground upwards – like the construction of a Book of Change hexagram). The most efficient martial arts style that I have seen that can convey this ability to a new student (with little prior experience) in the modern world – is that of the Shukokai Karate-Do style as formulated by O-Sensei Shigeru Kimura (1941-1995).
Integrated or ‘mixed’ power is a rarefied and highly refined skill of the highest martial order! A Master of ‘integrated’ power possesses the ability to continuously switch between power-generating systems (as in ‘external’ or ‘internal’), or apply only an ‘integrated’ approach. Furthermore, within the few seconds of a complicated fight – a fighter might have to switch rapidly from one power-expression to another because this is exactly what the situation calls for. The opponent could be highly skilled and a diverse approach necessary to ‘unlock’ their defensive patterns. Being ‘trapped’ in a restricted space might prevent certain techniques (and types of power generation) from being deployed – so the most appropriate mode should be selected. Where horizontal space is missing in the environment – then ‘vertical’ power can and should be used (with the orientation of power-generation adjusted to meet circumstances). Of course, the ‘iron vest’ ability to use the ‘aligned’ bones to absorb, reject or deflect any incoming attack is always in operation with the intention of ‘damaging’ the opponent’s attacking limb through using its own power and ‘deflecting’ it back into the structures of the attacking limb. This coincides with the maintaining of the perfect ‘rooted’ footwork.
External Power = 外功 (Wai Gong)
Internal Power = 內功 (Nei Gong)
Integrated Power = 雜功 (Za Gong)
The ‘neigong’ (or ‘neidan’) component is a vast subject that is very complex and directly linked to Daoist practice. This requires a qualified Master to lead the way. However, I have relayed above the basic requirements for ‘power production’ in our Hakka Family Style of Traditional Chinese Martial Arts.
The point is to bring an end to all greed, hatred and delusion in the mind, body and environment. Although this a distinctly ‘Buddhist’ solution to the ills of life – generally speaking, it is also the solution of most ‘secular’ models of reality! An individual can choose their path and express their development in any way they wish or see fit – but in the end a definite ‘purification’ process is experienced which changes the inner and outer being forever! Inner peace is expressed through a deadly martial technique that is NEVER personal but always ‘indifferent’ and in a state of continuous ‘healing’ of humanity, the world and everything in it! Although wild animals can be extremely dangerous in their natural habitats – nevertheless it is important not to produce thoughts of ‘anger’ or ‘violence’ when taking suitable action to ‘avoid’ the danger.
This is using wisdom. Sometimes, even wild animals can be seen responding to ‘kindness’ in a manner that is considered very unusual! Even domestic pets can be difficult – but this is all the more reason to maintain a sense of inner and outer peace. Human-beings, by way of contrast, are often far more dangerous with their habitual anger and potential violent outbursts! Traditional gongfu training prepares human-beings for the maelstrom of combat in the outer world – whilst maintaining a calm inner terrain that remains ‘unruffled’ regardless of circumstance. Life can be hard, but it can also be beautiful, truthful and full of justice! The point is to always be ready to build upon the foundation of ‘peace’ and make the world a better place for everyone to live!
The physical techniques of the martial arts exist to empower an individual to protect their bodies, their community and their nation. The inner path is universal and transcends these narrow categories of potential violence! If combat happens, then the qualified Shifu must fight to prevail and never lose any encounters! However, this ‘victory’ should never be allowed to happen through ‘anger’ as this is ‘low’, ‘corrupt’ and ‘despicable’! As a situation can change in an instant, a martial artist must always be prepared to ‘adjust themselves to circumstance’ and never let a prejudiced view of reality take over the ‘flow’ of combat and conflict resolution. On the other hand, when combat must be successfully engaged within, then the sheer ‘weight’ of the cultivated ‘inner peace’ must quite literally ‘crush’ the violence that exists in the mind and body of the opponent! Peace must prevail over all.
Advanced martial arts practice is ethereal even though it involves the movement of the body. In fact, moving the body is basic gongfu training, a mastery of which should be gained in one’s youth if possible. When the body ‘ages’ - a practitioner does not want the problem of mastering martial technique whilst coming to terms with how ‘ageing’ changes the mind and body. Knowing how to stand, fall, get-up, moving, kick, punch, block and evade, etc, are foundational issues that must be thoroughly absorbed into the deepest levels of the mind and body well before middle-age is reached. Of course, this is not always the case, as some people take-up the practice of traditional Chinese martial arts late in life – but with regards the more robust and rugged ‘external’ techniques – youthful practice is preferred. This is why many older people (with no previous experience) start their martial arts training through one of the ‘internal’ arts – which are a product of an ‘advanced’ and ‘mature’ mind-set.
On the other hand, if an individual is able to build 20-30 years of training prior to hitting 40-50 years of age – then the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons and inner organs have all had time to experience a ‘hardening’ process over-time - and are far more ‘robust’ whilst the individual traverses into older age. Probably the greater reason for early martial arts practice is that the ability to produce massive (internal and external) impact power (with minimum) effort must be mastered before the body transitions into older age. This observation does not mean that older people cannot achieve this ability later in their life – but to already possess this devastating power is one less burden – particularly as we may also have far more responsibilities as mature people than the average young person. However, with the right type of instruction from a genuine Master, anyone of any age can ‘master’ gongfu regardless of circumstances. Motivation is the key to it all.
The mind must be ‘still’ and ‘expansive’. Its psychic fabric must be simultaneously ‘empty’ and yet ‘envelop’ all things without exception! Although there is much experimentation in the West with the physical techniques of the many (and varied) gongfu styles – very few practitioners are interested in the spiritual or higher psychological aspects of traditional Chinese martial arts. This is because gongfu has been taught the wrong way around in the West to suit the cultural bias of the fee-paying audience. Whereas in China kicking is learned before punching – in the West punching is taught before kicking (because of the influence of Western Boxing). Whereas in China a gongfu practitioner learns to stand still and to stand ‘solid’ whilst defending the ten directions – in the West students are taught to move around before being taught how to ‘stand still’ (this is because Western students do not understand the important of achieving inner and outer ‘stillness’). Whereas in China gongfu student learn to ‘relax’ before assuming postures – in the West students are taught to ‘stretch’ using yoga-like techniques (mostly unknown in China). Whereas students in China learn to ‘strike’ various wooden objects to condition the bones of the hands and feet – in the West, students are encouraged to hit ‘soft’ pads that give a false impression of what it is like to hit a ‘real’ body! In the West, the mind is ‘entertained’ as a means to secure continued fee-paying through class attendance – whilst in China the Master continuously looks for new ways of ‘testing’ the virtue of the student and for any reason to ‘expel’ them from the training hall!
All this ‘inversion’ must be remedied if the highest levels of spiritual and physical mastery are to be achieved. This has nothing to do with rolling around on a padded floor wearing padded-gloves – and everything to do with ‘looking within’ to refine the flow of internal energy. The awareness of the mind must permeate every cell of the physical body whilst the practitioner sits correctly in the meditation posture. What else is there? When advanced practitioners ascend to a certain age of maturity, reality has nothing to do with the ego pursuit of ‘winning’ or ‘losing’ in petty disputes that ultimately mean nothing. Most of the combat sports of the moment are fleeting and exist merely to make money – and they are ineffective on the modern battlefield and not practiced by the military! The final lesson is to ‘leave the body’ with the minimum of fuss when the time presents itself. In a very real sense, a genuine Master of martial arts has ‘already’ transcended the boundaries of material limitation whilst still living. This sense of ‘completion’ and ‘transcendence’ is what draws the already perceptive into his or her presence to receive instruction...
ORIGINAL CHINESE LANGUAGE ARTICLE BY: QIANFENG DAOIST MASTER ZHAO MING WANG (赵明旺)
(TRANSLATED BY ADRIAN CHAN-WYLES PHD)
A few days ago, a venerable 70-year old man came to visit me in Beijing (at the Qianfeng Hermitage) from his hometown of Weihai in Shandong province! His name is ‘Jiang Daochang’ (姜道长) and he is a Disciple in the ‘Wudang’ (武当), ‘Sanfeng’ (三丰) School of internal martial arts practice and mastery! Indeed, Jiang Daochang has dedicated his life to the pursuance of Daoist gongfu (功夫)!
In his search for genuine Daoist self-cultivation knowledge and technique, he has travelled far and wide over many mountains and across numerous rivers! He is a Master of the ‘Taiji’ (太极) ‘Long-Sword’ (剑 - Jian) ‘Law’ (法 - Fa)! Eventually, he has settled in the ‘Wudang Sanfeng School’. However, he has also been aware of the Qianfeng Pre-Natal School and has attended a local study group for many years. It has been his positive experience with this group that led to him taking the decision to travel to Beijing and visit the Headquarters of the Qianfeng School.
He is a straightforward person who understands that usually a student must study with a Master for at least three-years (usually after three years of visiting other Masters) before being accepted as a ‘Disciple’ - but this situation is a little different due to Jiang Daochang already training in the Qianfeng School and the fact he is a Taiji Sword Master of many years standing! As is his right as an enquiring student – he requested that I ‘prove’ the efficacy of our School.
I first explained the ‘Essential Life Mind-Body' (性命双修 - Xing Ming Shuang Xiu) self-cultivation method as preserved within the Qianfeng School. I then assessed the health of his mind and body – and immediately ‘opened’ ALL of his energy channels throughout his body. As the transformation was ‘immediate’ - Jiang Daochang stated ‘This is the genuine Daoist self-cultivation! Without this method, the essential nature (精 - Jing) cannot transform vital force (炁 - Qi) in the mind and body!’ After experiencing this – Jiang Daochang immediately requested ‘Discipleship’ and he was formally accepted into the Qianfeng School!
Jiang Daochang is very concerned for the health of those who have practiced Taiji martial arts all their lives but who have also reached middle-age. When this stage of life is reached, it is important to replenish the ‘jing’ and ‘qi’ (精炁) so as to nourish the bones and inner organs. This is the same advice for ‘internal’ or ‘external’ martial arts practice! These activities consume a lot of ‘Jing’ (精 ) and ‘qi’ (气) - and this foundational store of energy needs to be replaced. This is a primary issue for athletes and people who like to keep-fit. Of course, this is also the same issue for everybody else – but at varying levels of use and replenishment. Many just burn themselves-out wasting their internal energy on frivolous pursuits! It is the ‘Essential Life Mind-Body' self-cultivation technique that can easily remedy this situation!
Qianfeng Pre-Natal School
Qianfeng Hermitage: Zhao Ming Wang
©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2021.
Original Chinese Language Source Article: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_64e533c90102yssx.html
Living in a second floor flat in London – and given that we are a family that collectively practices a style of (traditional) Chinese Martial Arts – much of daily training has to take place within our living-room! Obviously, with over a year of Covid19 Lockdowns – training in the ‘safety’ of our own home has been an important part of our collective psychological well-being and physical health! As part of our Longfist family style of gongfu requires the procuring and maintenance of the ‘heavy-hitting’ related with this ancient martial art – striking a suitable object on a regular basis is an important and integral part of our training regime!
We had to ensure that the free-standing punch-kick bag we chose could a) with stand the power of our kicks, punches, knees and elbows, etc, and b) not ‘fall-over’ as a consequence of being repeatedly and intensely hit. Having now used this product for over a month – subjecting its structure to every kind of martial arts strike imaginable – we are very happy with its performance, design and durability, particularly as we filled it with ‘water’ rather than sand (as we couldn’t go shopping due to Lockdown). The water has worked perfectly satisfactorily and it must be assumed that if sand is used – the already present stability will be even more enhanced!
The striking surface of the bag is tough and ‘non-leather’ - as we are vegetarians – this was an important factor in us making our choice. The bag sits atop four coach-type suspension springs that allow the bag to suddenly move off the centre-line – and re-establish itself just as quickly in the neutral, upright position! When this bag is affixed to the moulded (heavy-duty) plastic base – the structure stands around 6 foot 4 inches tall. As we have trained in the past on the ‘Muk Yen’ (Wooden Dummy) and hit the Makiwawa (of Okinawan Gojo Ryu Karate) - the quality of impact of this device lies somewhere between the two. It has a ‘whiplash’ within its deep structure which ensures it certainly is NOT too soft – with its robust response ensuring the bones, ligaments, joints and muscles of the striking limbs are kept in optimum health. This is one of the aspects that surprised us most – as we are used to striking a hard-wood surface with bare hands and feet. I suspect this bag has been devised in Japan for the practice of hard-hitting traditional Karate styles and is impressive.
This is a very well designed, constructed and presented piece of essential (traditional) martial arts equipment. Like any ‘professional’ grade striking device – expert instruction is required to avoid any type of impact-injury. After training this device can be pushed into a convenient corner for storage. As we have young children (and pets) wandering around our flat – ‘safety’ has been a priority – and this bag will not fall over when ALL the safety instructions are followed correctly. Even our young children enjoy punching and kicking this bag – and as we guide them properly – they do not experience any superficial damage to their hands or feet. However, a big and strong man or woman experienced in ‘striking’ - they soon learn that you ‘get back’ all the effort you put out! An all-round excellent product!
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.