Goju Ryu Kakie (2010)
I was thinking about your comment regarding 'Kakie' and its relating to 'hanging', or 'to hang', and thought I had better check the accuracy of my 2010 article. As I know next to nothing about Japanese script, I cannot remember where I acquired the Japanese 'かきえ' text that I used as a contextual blue-print - particularly as there was nothing like the digitalised dictionaries and encyclopaedias that are available online today!
I accessed a number of Japanese language texts regarding Karate-Do today, and found this interesting extract (although Wikipedia must always be checked for accuracy):
'Today's Karate-Do is a martial art that focuses on striking techniques, but Okinawa's ancient Karate-Do includes 'Control Hand' (取手 - Qu Shou) pronounced 'To-ui-Tī' or 'Tori-Te'（トゥイティー、とりて) in Okinawa - and 'Hang Hand' (掛手 - Gua Shou) pronounced 'Kaki-Ti' or 'Kake-Te' (カキティー、かけて) in Okinawa. These elements of the older Okinawan Karate-Do include grabbing, holding, and controlling the opponent's joints in preparation for throwing.'
What is interesting to me, after reading this, is that in gongfu this very principle is termed 'Qinna' (擒拿) - which I term 'joint relocation'. Master Chan Tin Sang used to say that 'if you know how a joint should normally move - then you know how a joint should 'not' move'! Furthermore, '擒' (qin2) also means to 'arrest' and 'constrict' - in other words, to 'stop' the opponent moving by taking away their options! As regards '拿' (na2), this means to 'seize' and 'grasp', etc!
With 'Hang Hand' (掛手 - Gua Shou) mentioned above, the ideogram '掛' (gua2) refers to the act of hanging or suspending. It can also mean to 'wear', 'arrive at', to 'divide' and to 'end' or 'terminate' an activity. The question is 'why' does this ideogram mean all this?
Left Particle = 扌(shou3) - this signifies a left-hand.
Right Particle = 卦 (gua4) - refers to a trigram or hexagram in the Yijing (Change Classic) - the act of 'divining' and the agency of 'change'.
Therefore, 卦 (gua4) is comprised as follows:
Left Particle = 圭 (gui1) - a ritualistic (pointed) jade object used when addressing the emperor! This is made by doubling the ideogram '土' (tu3) which symbolises 'earth' or 'clay' being worked on a potter's wheel!
Right Particle =卜 (bu3) - the act of 'divining' through integrating the 'cracks' derived by placing a hot poker on an ox scapula or tortoise shell (plastron). This is the historical basis of the 'Yijing' or 'Book of Change' (I Ching).
This would suggest that '掛' (gua2) derives from the skilled action of an Official or Minister (who served the King - the only person in ancient China who was allowed to access the divinatory 'oracle'). This Diviner used his left hand whilst 'separating' and 'dividing' the tortoise shells and/or ox scapula - probably 'hanging' or 'suspending' them up - whilst the right-hand held the heated metal rod which was applied to the sacrificial object. The King asked a question (which was written down by the Diviner), the hot poker touched the shell or bone and the rising smoke carried the message up to the divine sky! The answer was received through the various 'cracks' and 'patterns' manifest in the shell or bone - which only the Diviner could interpret. As these questions, received patterns and answers were all collected and sorted - the basis for the 'Yijing' or 'Book of Change' was formed.
In 2010 I used the Japanese (Hiragana) text:
かきえ = Kakie
In the above Japanese Karate-Do page the following ideograms are used to express exactly the same idea:
1) カキテ = Kakite - this is written in 'Katakana'
2) かけて = Kakete - this is written in 'Hiragana'
As there are a number of variations of the same ideograms within the Japanese language, the first two ideograms I used in my 2010 article are identical with today's findings and match these expressions. Placing the ideogram I used first in each section, this is how they compare:
1) 'か' (Hiragana) is the same as 'カ' (Katakana) = 'Ka' - but in Japanese this means 'mosquito'! In my 2010 article I thought this might have been a Japanese rendering of the much more likely Chinese ideogram of '力' (li4) - which stands for 'power' and generated 'force' - given the nature of the Goju Ryu exercise under discussion.
2) 'き' (Hiragana) is equivalent to 'キ' (Katakana) and directly related to 'け' (Hiragana). Whereas my 'き' and the above 'キ' carry the sound 'ki' (and can mean 'ki' energy, wood, tree, spirit and origin, etc), the ideogram 'け' is pronounced 'Ke' and means 'hair', 'fur' and to 'divine'. In my 2010 article I though this might represent the Chinese ideogram '手' (shou3) or 'open hand' - which is often used to signify 'mastery' through 'control'.
3) I used the ideogram 'え' (Hiragana) which is pronounced 'E' and means to 'gather', 'meet' and 'turn'. The examples above use 'テ' (Katakana) and 'て' (Hiragana) both pronounced 'Te' and although used to imply an 'open hand' in the above Japanese text, more specifically these ideograms are used to refer to 'doing something' or 'an act in motion' which might or might not involve the use of the hand. Either way, my thoughts in 2010 was that this should represent the Chinese ideogram '元' (yuan2) - referring to the 'origin' or 'root' of a thing. (It is interesting that the reading of 'origin' in this section 3 does match an alternative meaning found in section 2 above - where 'き' can also mean 'origin' - as if a hidden meaning was accidently stumbled upon)!
In 2010 I was working from the idea that Higaonna Kanryo was being taught Chinese terms in the Hokkien (Fujian) dialect - which were then written down in the various alphabets used in Japan! As it stands, the Japanese interpretation of 'Kakie' (in whatever version) reads something like the 'mosquito that lives in the woods is doing something (possibly with his hand)!' Of course, this could be prosaic and refer to the irritating to and fro (backwards and forwards) movement of the mosquito as it moves with endless 'ki' energy, around an opponent that seems flat footed and stationary - like a tree!
Looking up '掛手' (Gua Shou) I found this Japanese language article which mentions Kakie as also being found within Sumo Wrestling (fed through the auto-translator):
Therefore, '掛手' (Gua Shou) in the Chinese language should read in the Japanese language as:
掛 = 'Ka', 'Ke' or 'Kai' (it seems both 'Ka' and 'Ke' and used simultaneously)
手 = 'Te', 'Ta', or 'Shu'
掛手 = 'Kake-Te'
This Japanese language page also uses the (Hiragana) variant of 'かけで' to describe this activity - which reads 'Ka Ke De' and translates as 'to over come an obstacle!' This is interesting, as the change of character at the end generates a coherent sentence - whereas the three other examples quoted above:
1) カキテ (found today)
2) かけて (found today)
3) かきえ (used in my 2010 article)
In and of themselves, do not carry any particular or coherent meaning. Although, my 2010 variant keeps translating as 'calligraphy' - but this could imply the hidden meaning of skilfully moving the hand to manipulate the environment! All in all, I think this new data immensely increases our knowledge of this Okinawan cultural activity! Even though it was not available to me in 2010, nevertheless, my reading of the characters is sound and I like the theoretical approach - which I think was the product of your knowledgeable input and the outcome of our long discussions about the history of Goju Ryu!