Middle Particle - 𣏟 (pai4) = 'Hemp' or 'Linen'
Lower Particle - 手 (shou3) = 'Open-Hand'
During a two-week visit to Hong Kong and the New Territories during February 1999 - which included a visit to the 'Chan' (陳) ancestral village in the Sai Kung area of the New Territories (as well as a trip over into Shenzhen to visit other relatives), I engaged in the usual gongfu activity of 'Form Swapping' with any other interested parties. Chinese gongfu Forms are like a form of cultural currency that involves a 'sharing' process which develops the over-all understanding of China's martial heritage of each individual involved! It is not that these 'new' or 'unfamiliar' styles are necessarily integrated into existing styles, systems and schools (although sometimes they are), but rather that practitioners of a certain level of attainment possess the ability to 'look beyond' and 'see through' the usual stylistic barriers that usually 'separate' and 'define' martial traditions! Indeed, as Master Chan Tin Sang (1924-1993) has a good reputation in the area, I was approached by various individuals to 'share' a gongfu Form over a friendly cup of tea! One such individual belonged to the now very affluent and exclusive 'Beggars and Wanderers Society' who offered to exchange one of our Longfist Forms for a Tiger and an Arahant Form preserved in their tradition. The members of this Society used to walk the roads of ancient China 'stealing' or 'borrowing' the gongfu Forms of local gongfu schools and passing these systems around, through and into places the population of which would usually not have encountered these types or sets of movements.
These 'Beggars' were also tough and developed these Forms through the practicality of having to fight for their survival! Today, however, this Society is now comprised of families that have done well for themselves in business, and which form a type of 'Guild' around the fact that a distant relative was once a wandering beggar - similar to an itinerant Buddhist monk - but without the support of the establishment! Travelling from place to place, and penetrating the clans and social systems of other places was a highly unusual pastime during feudal China - where China was controlled within the empire through a stringent conservativism where every household, community and area was expected to be an exact copy of the imperial house! Moving 'between' communities was viewed as being strictly unnecessary unless there was a good reason for it - but 'Beggars' often possessed the ability to move in and out of places 'unnoticed' and 'unhindered' providing they did not draw attention to themselves. This is how they 'acquired' their extensive martial knowledge - which is said to cover 'Northern' and 'Southern' fighting styles in equal measure! The style featured on this post is said to be a mixture of 'Northern' and 'Southern' styles and is termed '羅漢十八摩' (Luo Han Shi Ba Mo) or unusually' 'Arahant Eighteen Abilities of Touch'!
The use of the ideogram '摩' (mo2) is interesting - particularly as it seems to be replacing the more familiar '拳' (quan2) which denotes a closed fist. The ideogram '摩' (mo2) is comprised of:
Upper Particle - 厂 (han2) = 'Cliff'
Middle Particle - 𣏟 (pai4) = 'Hemp' or 'Linen'
Lower Particle - 手 (shou3) = 'Open-Hand'
Therefore, the use of '摩' (mo2) might denote the 'careful' and 'gentle' plucking or picking of plants from the edge of a cliff - a dangerous activity that requires skill, timing and precise movement. Indeed, this leads to the other meaning of '摩' (mo2) which is to 'study' so that the 'touch' of the individual becomes highly skilled and yet free of all malice. As this style is said to have been developed by Chinese Buddhist monastics (possibly premised upon Indian Buddhist prototypes) - it is more than likely that the use of '摩' (mo2) signifies the non-presence of greed, hatred and delusion, the three taints all Buddhist practitioners are expected to 'uproot' through hours of seated meditation and the behaviour modification enforced through stringent (Vinaya) self-discipline! I suspect this indicates that this style of 'Arahant' self-defence preserves an older naming system. The arrangement of the ideograms seem to suggest that there are 'Eighteen' fighting techniques the 'Arahants' are expected to 'Study' if the sentence is read from left to right (which I am assuming). If the arrangement is meant to read right to left, then we have 'Study Eighteen Arahants'. Whatever the case, it is more usual today to place the number 'Eighteen' BEFORE the word 'Arahant' (十八羅漢). It seems that the use of the ideogram '摩' (mo2) suggests methods whereby the Buddhist monastics emulate the techniques of 'closing the distance' between themselves and their opponent - without involving any malice of fore-thought!
Fujian Provincial Government: 30 Years Ago - Lin Weigong (林伟功) - Was Given the Task of Uncovering the Chinese Roots of Okinawan Goju Ryu Karate-Do! (5.2.2020)
Translator's Note: The earliest editions of this story appear on the Chinese language internet on December 30th, 2019. This story is then circulated around and through the Chinese language media for at least another six months to a year. There appears to be two dates that are distinct - but which are 'merged' - during the reporting of this story. The two dates are as follows:
a) 'September 16th, 1989' - when Lin Weigong made the official announcement that he had discovered the name of the Chinese Master of the 'Whooping Crane Fist' - that is 'Xie Chongxiang' (謝崇祥) [1852-1930]- also known as Xie Ru Ru (謝如如) and 'Ru Ru Ge' (如如哥) - who was the teacher of the Higaonna Kanryo [1853-1915] (from Okinawa) during the 19th century.
b) 'June 9th, 1990' - a black marble "Monument of Achievement" was raised in the southwest corner of the Fuzhou New Sports Centre by the Japanese and Okinawa Karate Association in memory of the Chinese Master Xie Ru Ru (謝如如) also known as 'Ru Ru Ge' (如如哥) - the Chinese teacher of the Okinawan Master Higaonna Kanryo!
Therefore, the year '2019' marks the 30th Anniversary of the announcement of the discovery of 'Xie Chongxiang' (謝崇祥) - whilst the year '2020' marks the 30th Anniversary of the raising of the black marble stele - and I believe the confusion (and conflation) of these two dates is the reason 'why' the news story continues to be associated with two different years (2019 and 2020). As not all of the historical data is present in any one single text (as the authors assume their readership already possesses a working knowledge of the story at hand), I have borrowed from at least three versions and have weaved a coherent historical narrative together. There was around eight months between Lin Weigong's historical announcement - and the Japanese - Okinawan Karate Association (representing 'Goju Ryu') organising the fund raising, commissioning, construction and transportation of the black marble stele - which is inscribed using Japanese language ideograms. The primary pictures in this article feature the stele and are dated from 1990 and 2000. The main stone tablet (and supporting base stele) both commemorate - with great respect - the eternal friendship that exists between China and Japan. This very close and fraternal relationship is embodied (and epitomised) through the creative (historical) interaction that took place between Xie Chongxiang and Higaonna Kanryo! May this interaction between the cultures of these two countries be forever fruitful! ACW (15.8.2022)
In the summer of 1988, the relevant Departments of Okinawa Prefecture Government hosted a banquet in Fuzhou to thank the Deputy Secretary-General of the Fujian Provincial Government and Director of the Provincial Tourism Bureau - Nan Jiang (南江) - and other leaders including the well-known and respected senior academic - Lin Weigong - (Editor-in-Chief of People's History of the Fuzhou Local Chronicle Committee) who sought out the roots of the "Thirty-Six Surnames of Fujian People" in the Ryukyu country. He has made unremitting efforts and contributions to the search for roots and ancestors in Okinawa for many years. On September 16th, 1989, after months of arduous research, Lin Weigong made the breakthrough that everybody had been waiting for - that he had discovered the Chinese teacher of Higaonna Kanryo! This led to a great outpouring of enthusiasm and excitement in both Okinawa and Japan - culminating in the idea of constructing an engraved monument to honour the Chinese ancestor whose martial arts style eventually evolved into style of Goju Ryu Karate-Do in Okinawa! Therefore, on June 9th, 1990, in the southwest corner of the Fuzhou New Sports Centre, a solemn black marble "Monument of Achievement" was raised. It is a monument erected by the Japanese and Okinawa Karate Association in memory of the Chinese Master Xie Ru Ru (謝如如) also known as 'Ru Ru Ge' (如如哥) - the Chinese teacher of the Okinawan Master Higaonna Kanryo - who developed a style of Karate-Do - that evolved into 'Goju' (Hard-Soft) Ryu. His full name was 'Xie Chongxiang' (謝崇祥).
Thirty-Years Ago - "People's Daily" Overseas Edition - "China Sports News" and Other Reports!
Investigative Report Published in "Fujian Local Chronicle".
The Chairman of Fujian Wushu Association Liu Zhonglu (刘中路) and Lin Weigong (林伟功) Cooperated to Publish a Report in "Chinese Wushu".
The Inauguration Ceremony of the Outstanding Monument Held at the Fujian Provincial Sports Centre (1990).
Wen Fushan (温附山) Vice Governor of Fujian Province - and VIP Leaders from All Walks of Life in China, Japan and Okinawa - Attended the Ceremony Took a Group Photograph in Front of the Monument.
The Name on the Tablet - Decided by the Historical Investigation team - is that of 'Ru Ru Ge' (如如哥) as the Martial Arts Master in Fujian Who Taught Higaonna Kanryo!
From the left in the front row of the photograph: Lin Weigong (林伟功), Lin Xuanzhi [林萱治] (former Deputy Director of the General Office of the Fuzhou Municipal Government and former Director of the Municipal Local Records Office), Fang Baoyan (方宝炎) (the Great Master of Whooping Crane Fist - 鸣鹤拳 [Ming He Quan]), Huang Qiquan [黄启权] (former director of the General Office of the Municipal Party Committee, Director of the Municipal Office of Local Affairs), Wen Fu Shan [温附山] (Vice Governor of Fujian Province), Head of the Japanese and Okinawan Delegation - Yuika Tokashiki (渡嘉敷唯贤) - (President of the Japanese and Okinawan Karate Association). In the back row are the Directors and Deputy Directors of the Provincial Sports Commission, as well as leaders of relevant Departments and other members of the Japanese and Okinawan delegation.
Lin Weigong (林伟功) was hired as a Special Consultant by the Japanese and Okinawan Karate Association to investigate the origins of Goju Ryu Karate-Do in China. The picture shows the esteemed Presidemt - Yuika Tokashiki (渡嘉敷唯贤) and Lin Weigong - taking a photograph together in front of the monument.
A Photograph of President Yuika Tokashiki and Lin Weigong - Executive Vice Chairman and Secretary General of the Fujian Provincial Surname Origin Research Association, Deputy Director of the Fujian Provincial Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Fujian Provincial Committee, and Head of the Liaison Office.
The above pages are written in Japanese script and list a number of 'names' of honourable Japanese people who have contributed finance, time and/or expertise to the arrangement, construction and raising of the stone monument(s). These names include Moriyoshi Niizaki, Tomoyoshi Nakayoshi, Chuichi Uehara, Takakatsu Nakamura, Yasuhide Gibo, Antetsu Takehara, Yuki Dochu, Nobuichi Ishii, Koji Sugimoto, Noriko Sugimoto, Maki Sugimoto, Masashi Deni, Hiromi Miyagi,,Koji Miyagi, Hyakuna Ason, Hanashiro Seimei, Onaha Tsutomu, Nakazato Masayuki, Gakiya Hiroshi,
Kamiesu Choho, Hirota Nakaima and Kosuke Kamiya, etc.
Chinese Language Articles:
Selection of Important Extracts:
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.