Oddly, I have translated a Chinese language text into English regarding the Head Shaolin Monk (of the Temple located in Henan) named 'Miao Xing' (妙兴) - a Buddhist monastic name meaning 'Profound Prospering' (these names can be used many times over during 'Ordination' to refer to completely different individuals) but his dates are '1891-1927' and not '1881-1939):
This 'Miao Xing' was considered a genius in gongfu and was trained in the following martial arts - Suppress Mountain Stick (镇山棍 – Zhen Shan Gun), Arahant Boxing (罗汉拳 – Luo Han Quan), Acupuncture (点穴 – Dian Xue), Grasping & Capturing (擒拿 – Qin Na), Bone-Breaking & Joint Dislocation (卸骨 – Xie Gu), 72 Methods of Qi Cultivation Practice law (气功七十二艺练功法 – Qi Gong Shi Er Yi Lian Gong Fa), together with many other arts.
This French language Wiki-page uses the Chinese ideograms referred to above for a 'Miao Xing' dated as '1881-1939':
'Luohanquan comes from the Monk known as Miaoxing (妙兴, 1881-1939) and is composed of 18 methods (Shiba fa): 6 with fist, 2 with palm, with 1 elbow, 4 with leg, 5 with handle / Qinna. This style might be considered a "new frame" of an older Luohanquan.'
Furthermore, this 'Portuguese' Goju Ryu article (GEKISAI – 撃砕) states this:
'In order to expand his martial knowledge he (Miyagi Chojun) traveled to China in 1936 where he learned Chuan Fa techniques. On a visit to the city of Shanghai, he met a master of Lohan Quan (罗汉拳 – Generic name for all styles of Chinese martial arts), called Miao Xing (1881 – 1939) of the Monk Fist style. Some strikes of Kata Gekisai Dai Ichi come from exercises from master Miao Xing's teachings.'
Obviously, Luohan Quan is not a 'generic' name for all Chinese gongfu - but a specific aspect of this genre. The idea of a 'Monk Fist' Style in this context is a misunderstanding of the available data. However, the proposed connection between Luohan Quan and Gekisai Dai-Ichi is curious and compelling.
I cannot find a 'Miao Xing' (1881-1939) within Chinese language sources - but there is a 'Miao Xing' (1891-1927) whose martial arts biography is a mirror reflection of that recorded in the Goju Ryu history - but he had died in 1927 (a year before the Nationalists destroyed the Henan Shaolin Temple) and had been deceased for at least nine-years by the time Myagi Chojun visited the Jing Wu Association (in Shanghai) during 1936. If Miyagi Chojun did train with 'Miao Xing' - then it must have been BEFORE 1927 - and probably during his 1915 and 1917 visits to China. This debate over dating reminds me of the disagreement regarding when it was that Miyagi Chojun learned the martial technical basis (in China) for what would become 'Tensho'.
Fuzhou Wushu Association: The Crane Nest Temple (鹤巢寺-He Chao Si) is the Origin of the Goju Ryu Karate-Do Style!
The Article is from the Fuzhou Wushu Association which Carries Out Ongoing Research into the Chinese Origins of Okinawan Goju Ryu Karate-Do! This Article is Hosted on the Above Website in Zhejiang (China) Which was Established in 2008 as an Education Facility Introducing Okinawan Goju Ryu Karate-Do to the General Population! The Above Chinese Language Script Reads '冲绳刚柔流空手道华道馆' or 'Okinawan Goju Ryu Karate-Do - Culture Way Hall'
Translator’s Note: The Fuzhou Wushu Association published the original Chinese language version of this article on March 2nd, 2009 (on a Chinese language website based in Zhejiang dedicated to the history, theory and practice of Okinawan Goju Ryu). The author - Lin Weigong (林伟功) - is a government official in China who specialises in the history of Fuzhou and is an expert in the Fuzhou dialect and martial arts literature compiled in the area. He is also a practitioner of ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) and has trained in the direct martial arts (family) lineage of Pan Yu Ba (Lin Dachong - 林达崇) under his brother-in-law ‘Lin Gentu’ (林根土) - who is a direct family descendant of Pan Yu Ba! I suspect that Lin Weigong is of the same general name clan of ‘Lin’ (林) as his brother-in-law – but not a ‘direct’ lineage descendant of Pan Yu Ba. When the author refers to - Xie Ruru (谢如如) - he means Xie Chongxiang (謝崇祥) [1852-1930) who was a very famous martial artist from Changle County (situated within the Fuzhou area of China). He trained under Master Pan Yu Ba (潘嶼八) who transmitted the ‘Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) system to him - with some sources also suggesting he was also taught the ‘Southern Shaolin White Crane Fist’ (少林白鶴拳 - Shao Lin Bai He Quan). Xie Chongxiang later developed the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) system. Research suggests that ‘Xie Ruru’ was the teacher of Higaonna Kanryo (1853–1915) - even though he was only one year older than his student. Lin Weigong has written elsewhere that the title of ‘Ru Ru Ko’ or ‘Ryu Ryu Ko’ known in Okinawa actually refers to an esteemed ‘Elder Brother’ and makes sense if the age difference was so small. This would imply that the tradition held in Okinawa that ‘Ru Ru Ko’ was 25 years older than Higaonna Kanryo might be a misunderstanding. Mr Tony Smith 5th Dan - has been kind enough to contact me and suggest a clarification to this text. The original Chinese language text reads that Higaonna Kanryo was the founder of Goju Ryu Karate-Do - when in fact it was his student Miyagi Chojun (1888-1953) who later described this Chinese martial arts style he had learned as being 'Goju' or 'Hard-Soft' in principle. The original Chinese language text is correct in that Higaonna Kanryo is the Okinawan 'Patriarch' of the martial arts style he learned in China. On the other hand, Miyagi Chojun did not invent the movements he named 'Goju' - and he is not the Okinawan 'Patriarch' of the martial arts lineage that he moulded into the Goju Ryu style. The Chinese language text states that Higaonna Kanryo is the 'Patriarch' and Miyagi Chojun is the 'Successor' - like a 'father' is to a 'son'. However, it is also a historical fact that Higaonna Kanryo did not refer to the Chinese martial arts style he brought back from Fujian province - and taught to his student Miyagi Chojun - as 'Goju' (Hard-Soft). Of course, it is a mystery as to 'why' it is that Miyagi Chojun was never told the formal Chinese language name for the Fujian martial arts style he had studied for many years! As far as I am aware, Higaonna Kanryo trained over a 14 year period between 1867-1881 in Fujian province. The Chinese language text states that Higaonna Kanryo trained in Fujian during the reign of the Guangxu emperor who ruled between 1875-1908. According to other Chinese language historical texts, Higaonna Kanryo trained for 8 years prior to this era and for only 6 years during it! In fact he trained for 8 years during the 'Tongzhi' (同治) imperial period (learning between 1867-1875) and 6 years during the Guangxu (光緒) era (learning between 1875-1881). Matters are complicated by the fact he left and returned to China a number of times during this time period. Interestingly, as he was born in 1853 - this means he was only 14 years old when he first arrived in China during 1867 - and 28 years old when he finished his training in China during 1881 and returned to Okinawa! Mr Tony Smith 5th Dan has stated that in the research carried-out by Higaonna Morio 10th Dan - Higaonna Kanryo travelled to China around 1868-1869 when he was 16 years old and stayed there for 14 years - leaving China around 1882-1883. According to this data Higaonna Kanryo was 30 years old when he finally returned to Okinawa. Of course, I acknowledge that there are a number of different views on this matter, and by providing accurate Chinese to English translations of vitally important historical texts, I am providing the fuel for further and progressive debate! As for myself, I acquired my Goju Ryu 8th Kyu (White Belt with two black tags) in 1988! My love and respect for Goju Ryu has never diminished! ACW (2.8.2022)
According to the research carried out by Mr. Lin Weigong (林伟功) - an expert in historical records pertaining to the Fuzhou area (and confirmed by other knowledgeable authorities) - Higaonna Kanryo (东恩纳宽量), [the teacher of Miyagi Chojun - who later described the Chinese martial arts style he learned from Higaonna Kanryo as being 'Goju' [Hard-Soft]), travelled to Fuzhou (situated in Fujian province in Southeast China) to train under the guidance of Master Xie Ruru (谢如如) during the Guangxu (光绪) period of the Qing Dynasty (reigned 1875-1908) – and studied the martial art of ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (谢如如 - Ming He Quan). He trained in this martial art for three years before returning Okinawa – and then returned to Fuzhou for further instruction. Higaonna Kanryo further developed and innovated this ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ - and thereby created a very popular and robust style of Karate-Do known as ‘Goju Ryu’ (Hard-Soft School). In recent years, various Japanese martial arts circles have organized group visits to Fuzhou many times – an interaction which has effectively promoted positive economic and cultural exchanges between China and Japan.
According to relevant data and folk surveys, this relationship can be traced back to even earlier times. Master Xie Ruru is said to be the founder of ‘Whooping Crane Fist’. However, he trained under Master Pan Yu Ba (盘屿八) whose real name was ‘Lin Dachong’ (林达崇). The historical records state that Master Xie Ruru trained in the ‘Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) whilst training with Pan Yu Ba – and the implication is that the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ evolved out of this style. After Master Xie Ruru observed the behaviour of a White Crane (defending itself) - he developed the theory and practice of the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’! Indeed, the ‘Crane Fist’ (鹤拳 - He Quan) genre of ‘Southern Fist’ (鹤拳 - Nan Quan) is just one of the hundred flowers of martial brilliance that has blossomed from within the Fuzhou area! The principle of White Crane Fist has spread far and wide and has been developed and evolved into many and interesting ‘Lineages of Crane’ (宗鹤 - Zong He). There are four main types such as ‘Perching Crane’ (宿鹤 - Su He), ‘Whooping Crane’ (鸣鹤 - Ming He), ‘Flying Crane’ (飞鹤 - Fei He) and ‘Eating Crane’ (食鹤 - Shi He). This style can also be known as ‘Morning Crane’ (朝鹤 - Chao He) and ‘Paralysing Crane’ (痹鹤 - Bi He).
The birth name of Pan Yu Ba (盘屿八) was ‘Lin Dachong’ (林达崇) and he was originally from Pan Yu Township situated in the Cangshan District of the Fuzhou City region. (This area is now known as the ‘Red Star Farm’ - 红星农场). As he ranks eighth among his uncles and brothers of the same generation – he became known as ‘Pan Yu Ba’ - or ‘Pan Yu Eight’ - when his abilities became known far and wide! When he was young, Pan Yu Ba trained at the ‘Crane Nest Temple’ (鹤巢寺 - He Chao Si), situated in the Cangshan (仓山) area of Mount ‘Gaogai’ (高盖) under the ‘Head Monk’ (住持 - Zhu Chi) of that temple known as Venerable Qingding (清定). Master Qingding was an expert in ‘Shaolin Arahant Fist’ (少林罗汉拳 - Shao Lin Luo Han Quan) and taught this to Pan Yu Ba. Master Qingding was originally from Quanzhou and his fighting capabilities were considered extraordinary. As well as administrating a Ch’an temple which trained Buddhist monastics – he was also renowned as being an expert in medicine, specialising in the treatment of trauma wounds. Master Qingding established a free medical clinic on the main road to the coast between Fuzhou and Bailu (白鹭) Ridge. Local people would come to receive a diagnosis and treatment from Master Qingding. Master Qingding and Pan Yu Ba lived a thirty-minute walk apart from one another and were always in close contact with one another.
Master Pan Yu Ba possessed legendary physical and mental strength! He also became a great teacher in his own right! Oneday, when his brother was building a house there was a very large foundation stone which weighed around 900 pounds and took numerous people to lift (with difficulty). Pan Yu Ba lifted this stone on his own – and was able to strike the stone and break it in half! He was addicted to alcohol and could drink a jar of rice wine without getting drunk. When it snowed and was freezing cold – he wore only a thin jacket and was not afraid of the cold. There are not many known cases of Lin Dachong competing with others, but there is only one anecdote widely known amongst the people. One day he went to Fenggangli (凤岗里) situated on Shandong Ridge (山东岭 - Shandong Ling) as a guest. He interceded between a dispute that happened between his relatives and the local people of ‘Toupu’ (透浦) Village! Master Pan Yu Ba was hunted down and surrounded by about a hundred villagers all attempting to give him a good beating! He knocked down many attacking people with his bare hands and then grabbed hold of two the attackers and used them as shields and attacking objects! This action prevented himself from being killed and the only injury he suffered was a stick blow across his back! The two people he was holding were beaten to death by the ferocity of the attack against him! So many villagers were wounded that they were sent to the clinic at Bailu Ridge to be treated by Master Qingding! As soon as Master Qingding saw the nature of the wounds – he knew exactly that it was his disciple – Pan Yu Ba – who had caused them! When Master Qingding returned to the Temple – he went to the home of Lin Dachong (Pan Yu Ba) to tell his family what had happened! He then sent out an order that Pan Yu Ba return to the mountain to explain what had happened!
After Lin Dachong's death, his descendants continued to live on for another five or six generations - until the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression when his direct relatives died out - and today only a number of his nephews remain. Unfortunately, his boxing manual (拳谱 - Quan Pu) was lost during the Cultural Revolution. His tomb was originally located in Longfu (龙阜) at the Southern foot of Gaogai Mountain. Due to the construction of an airport, the tomb was later moved to the top of the hill near the Crane Nest Temple – where the cemetery and tombstones still exist. The Crane Nest Temple of Gaogai Mountain was located in the valley on the Southern slope of the western section of Gaogai Mountain. It was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. In 1985, the local villagers raised funds to rebuild the temple, and now the project has begun to see fruit. The 76-year-old Lin Miaoxiu (林妙修) has presided over this temple reconstruction. In the countryside surrounding the temple there has been a natural habitat for White Crane breeding for hundreds of years and the area is full of breeding pairs! This is where the name of the temple originates, and this explains why the main symbol of the temple is a crane-shaped stone.
There are a number of questions which need to be considered: Before he founded ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) - did Xie Ruru (谢如如) visit ‘Crane Nest Temple’ (鹤巢寺 - He Chao Si) and meet the Ancestral Master (Qingding)? Did he receive instruction and gain inspiration from such an interaction? Did Master Qingding definitely originate from the Quanzhou area? Did Master Qingding have any direct contact with the Southern Shaolin Temple that once existed in Quanzhou – but which was destroyed by Qing Dynasty troops? These are all important questions worthy of serious consideration. If these issues can be clarified, then our all-round understanding of the martial history of Fuzhou will be enhanced. This would be an excellent development for Fuzhou culture and assist Sino-foreign relations immeasurably. For instance, in the past representatives of Okinawan Goju Ryu Karate-Do have organised groups visits to the area of the Crane Nest Temple to pay their respects to their martial ancestors!
According to historical investigation, the Southern Shaolin Temple in Quanzhou was destroyed by government troops during the early Qing Dynasty, and the monks were displaced. This meant that the Southern Shaolin monks known as ‘Iron Staff’ (铁杖 - Tie Zhang), ‘Iron Shoes’ (铁鞋 - Tie Xie), Iron Handle (铁柄 - Tie Bing) and ‘Iron Beads’ (铁珠 - Tie Zhu) all had to flee in different directions for their own safety! The monk known as ‘Iron Beads’ (铁珠 - Tie Zhu) fled North to Fuzhou (still in Fujian province) and took with him the ‘Dragon Staff’ (龙桩 - Long Zhang) which comprised part of the skill of the ‘Dragon Fist’ (龙拳 - Long Quan) martial system. This monk, however, is known to have specialised in the practice of ‘Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) and this is how this secretive style of martial arts spread from the confines of the Southern Shaolin Temple in Quanzhou, to being readily available to people living in Fuzhou! (Translator: Fuzhou is located around 133 miles northeast of Quanzhou – travelling up the East Coast of Fujian province – an area immediately adjacent to the Northern tip of the Chinese island of Taiwan. This is a journey that could have been easily completed by boat). This is how the ‘Dragon Fist’ and ‘Arahant Fist’ style of Southern Shaolin martial arts spread to the Fuzhou area. Meanwhile, the Venerable Monk ‘Iron Beads’ (铁珠 - Tie Zhu) took refuge in the ‘Crane Nest Temple’ (鹤巢寺 - He Chao Si) which is situated in the Gaogai Mountains area of the Cangshan District of Fuzhou City! Later, Master ‘Iron Beads’ (铁珠 - Tie Zhu) became responsible for teaching the resident monks the ’Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) style of martial arts. One of these monks was the ‘Venerable Qingding’ (清定) who learned the ’Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) thoroughly before becoming an official lineage descendent of Master ‘Iron Beads’ (铁珠 - Tie Zhu)! Following these events, Master Qingding met the talented lay person ‘Lin Dachong’ (林达崇), accepted him as a disciple and transmitted to him the entire style of the ’Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan)!
My brother-in-law is ‘Lin Gentu’ (林根土) - who is from the Pan Yu Township. He is a direct descendent of ‘Lin Dachong’ (林达崇) and has passed on the ‘Fist Law’ (拳法 - Quan Fa) to me. The ‘Lin’ (林) family of Pan Yu Township state that ‘Xie Ruru’ (谢如如) learned ’Arahant Fist’ (罗汉拳 - Luo Han Quan) directly from ‘Lin Dachong’ (林达崇). Later, ‘Xie Ruru’ (谢如如) watched a ‘White Crane’ (白鹤 - Bai He) land near him. The awe-inspiring deportment of this bird influenced his creation of the martial arts style known as ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan). The manner in which the bird stood, moved about, arranged its feathers and positioned its beak, wings and feet – all influenced ‘Xie Ruru’ (谢如如) in his planning and structuring. Of particular interest was the general ‘Form’ (形 - Xing) or ‘Shape’ of the bird which involved a particular psychological attitude combined with a precise physical presence! Although seemingly vulnerable – the bird was actually very strong! The ‘White Crane’ manifested a perfect blend of ‘strength’ and ‘weakness’ - of ‘assertion’ and ‘giving-way’! The ‘White Crane’ uses its wings to good effect as they ‘tremble’ (抖 - Dou) before exploding with tremendous speed and power! To warn other birds of a potential danger in the immediate environment – the ‘White Crane’ issues forth a piercing ‘cry’ as the wings ‘tremble’ in preparation to deliver debilitating strikes (which include the use of the beak and the feet). The ‘White Crane’ appears ‘weak’ but is ‘strong’! Appears to be stuck in one place – but can easily move into all available spaces! The ‘White Crane’ easily ‘evades’ and yet steadfastly ‘holds’ its ground! Appears to ‘stumble’ but never loses its ‘balance’! The ‘White Crane’ is at its most dangerous when it seems to be at its most weakest – this is precisely when the ‘piercing cry’ is issued, and the opponent is in the most danger! This is why this style is called ‘Whooping Crane’ (鸣鹤 - Ming He)!
Inspired by the ‘rigidity’ (刚 - Gang) and ‘flexibility’ (柔 - Rou) of the ‘White Crane’ as preserved within the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) - Higaonna Kanryo founded the ‘Goju Ryu’ (刚柔流 - Gang Rou Liu) system of Okinawan Karate-Do. This style of Karate-Do spread throughout Okinawa and across the world! The ‘Fighting Manual’ (拳论 - Quan Lun) associated with the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) style states:
‘The constant interplay of ‘hardness’ and ‘softness’ concentrates and stills the mind whilst strengthening the spirit.’
A genuine martial artist cannot be only ‘strong’ or only ‘flexible - but must develop a fighting technique which envelopes both these expressions of reality. Being limited to one or other extreme will not develop martial invincibility. Indeed, a well-rounded warrior must be both firm and flexible simultaneously and consecutively! Must develop a mind-set that resides at the ‘still’ (and ‘empty’) centre of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ - whilst being able to traverse the physical structures of the body through martial techniques that are at one moment ‘hard’ whilst at another ‘soft’.
The ‘Fighting Manual’ (拳论 - Quan Lun) associated with the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) style states:
‘This Crane System depends entirely upon the mastery of ‘shaking’ (摇 - Yao) the hands!’
This is an important and central concept within ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) as ‘shaking’ the hands is the technique (that when applied throughout the body) serves as the method through which ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ techniques are manifest and transitioned from one type to the opposite (i.e., from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ and vice versa). The mind must be ‘still’ and ‘all-embracing’ for this method to manifest throughout the entire physical body as it traverses the environment. The ‘shaking’ (摇 - Yao) technique itself is essentially ‘soft’ (柔 - Rou) but as it permeates the mind and body - a very powerful and yet flexible (explosive) force is generated! This is the foundational teaching (宗 - Zong) that is passed on within this style! If mastered correctly, then ‘hardness’ and ‘softness’ are perfectly entwined in a continuous interplay that reacts exactly to all external circumstances and situations! The manual explains that a practitioner whose mind is chaotic and whose body is continuously overly ‘tense’ exhibit what is termed the ‘stiff hand’ (硬手 - Ying Shou) - whilst a mind that is chaotic and a body that is overly ‘weak’ is termed the ‘weak hand’ (软手 - Ruan Shou). In terms of offense and defence, being too rigid is easy to be overcome by softness, and too soft is easy to be dominated by rigidity. Between rigidity and softness, it is required to be rigid but not stiff, soft but not weak – this is how ‘vigour’ (劲 - Jin) and ‘power’ (力 - Li) are thoroughly developed.
The momentary ‘softness’ is not ‘loose’, not ‘weak’, not ‘stagnant’ but rather ‘vigorous’ and ‘buoyant’ (as ‘hardness’ momentary manifests)! Change is the essence as the ten thousand situations come and go! This is how the central ‘shaking’ (摇 - Yao) technique that defines the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) should be interpreted and manifested! If this technique can be mastered, then with the slightest of touches a practitioner can respond like an arrow firing from a bow! When being attacked there is a dangerous assertion in the immediate environment! The opponent ‘congeals’ all their power in one area and the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) practitioner perceives this situation precisely. The danger of the attack is expertly avoided through evasion (the use of ‘softness’) whilst sharp and coordinated attacks (the use of ‘hardness’) are rained down upon the attacker in the direction of their undefended flanks. The counterstrikes hit home exactly with no hesitation. If the opponent changes position or attacking method – the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) moulds their reactions perfectly so the pressure is relentless and never relaxed until the threat has been neutralised. The enemy is peppered with strikes wherever their defensive gaps happen to be! The opponent is overpowered with precision! By observing the interplay of nature (the interaction of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’) the mind becomes ‘still’, ‘reflective’ and ‘expansive’. An aggressive opponent is merely an extension of the natural environment. Observing the natural processes of the environment is the same as observing the natural processes manifesting within an aggressive opponent. Correctly observe the former and the latter will be properly understood. The environment presses forward – the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) practitioner gives way – the environment gives way – and the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) practitioner presses forward! There is a continuous and flowing unity with no disconnect or over exaggeration.
Within Okinawa and Japan, the ‘Goju Ryu’ (刚柔流 - Gang Rou Liu) or ‘Hard-Soft’ style of Karate-Do is well-known as being theoretically and practically premised upon the ‘Whooping Crane Fist’ (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan) style! Specifically, the principle that links Goju Ryu Karate-Do to this ‘Whooping Crane Fist - (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan)’ is the theory of ‘刚柔相济’ (Gang Rou Xiang Ji) or the ‘continuous interchange of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’). Indeed, it is obvious that the Goju Ryu style contains Chinese martial arts techniques that are premised upon ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ techniques that unfold in a continuous an orderly manner! Furthermore, it is clear that the ‘Katas’ and ‘Basic’ techniques contained within Goju Ryu are clearly derived from the ‘Whooping Crane Fist - (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan)’ martial system. Given that the Whooping Crane Fist - (鸣鹤拳 - Ming He Quan)’ originates within the ‘Crane Nest Temple’ (鹤巢寺 - He Chao Si) which is situated in the Gaogai Mountain area of the Cangshan District, located to the South of Fuzhou City, Fujian Province.
Chinese Language Article:
关于林达崇与 别人较量的事例尚不多见，民间只盛传他的一件轶事：某日他到凤岗里山东岭作客，因亲戚与透浦村民的小纠纷而直言，遭透浦大批人马的持械围殴。他赤手空拳打倒多人，最后见寡不敌众就从对方阵中抓过两人却挡在身前，结果他只背部受棍伤，而那两人却被己方的棍棒打得奄奄一息。透浦人把伤员送赴白鹭岭清定和尚诊 所，清定和尚一看便知是他的高徒所为。返寺时先到林达崇家通知其家人，要达崇连夜上山找他疗伤。达崇天黑到家闻讯，知道瞒不过师父，只好遵命连夜上山听从师父安排，由此可见其师徒关系密切和相知的程度。
林达崇逝 世后，子裔尚绵延五六代人，到抗日战争时绝嗣，今仅余侄辈继嗣。其拳谱惜在文革中散佚。其墓原在高盖山南麓的龙阜，因建机场，后迁至鹤巢寺附近的山头，墓地和墓碑尚存。高盖山鹤巢寺位于高盖山西段南坡的山谷里，文革中被毁。1985年，乡人多方集资重建，现初见规模，由76岁林妙修老尼主持该寺。�ジ吒巧� 鹤巢寺先前寺周围白鹤甚多，故以“鹤巢”为名，寺里亦以鹤形石为主要象征。谢如如在创立鸣鹤拳之前，是否到过师祖的鹤巢寺，从中得到启发和教益?清定和尚 是否确为泉州人氏?与相传毁于清初的泉州南少林寺是否有什么渊源关系?这些问题值得我们深入研究。倘能探寻清楚，将对弘扬福州乡土文化起到促进作用，并对 中外经济文化交流产生积极的作用。
东恩纳宽量受了鸣鹤拳刚柔相济的启发，创立了日本空手道的最大流派“刚柔流”。鸣鹤拳拳论中云“刚柔相济定心神”。一种拳法只有刚劲是不行 的，只有柔劲也不行，必须刚柔俱备，刚柔相济。鸣鹤拳拳诀云：“鹤法全靠摇宗手”。鸣鹤拳中手法和身法的变化方式称为摇，摇为柔；内身发出一种极其刚强有 力弹劲谓之宗，宗为刚。刚柔相济是为正宗 在技击上过刚的手法称为硬手或坏手，过柔的手法称为软手。从攻防上来说，过刚易被柔克，过柔易被刚制。在刚柔之间要求做到刚而不僵，柔而不软，劲力透达。
柔应不松、不软、活泼不滞、变化万千，即鸣鹤拳所要求的“摇”。能做到这一点，那么在技击时就能“触即变、发如箭”，当你一接触到攻击时，就 应善于观察其攻势，即时变化自己的手法击败对方，“吞吐浮沉君须记，刚柔相济定心神”，日本空手道的最大流派“刚柔流”即取鸣鹤拳的“刚柔相济”之拳诀而 享誉日本武术界。而“刚柔流”的不少招式、手法，还明显带有鸣鹤拳的痕迹，所以说日本空手道的“刚柔流”源出于福建省福州市南郊仓山区高盖山的鹤巢寺。
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.