At the end of the day, in a threatening position, an individual purporting to practice a traditional (Chinese) martial arts - must be able not to win trophies or gain coloured belts or sashes - but rather REMOVE the systemic threat existing in the immediate environment through the use of a 'decisive' act of disciplined violence. Unlike the modified martial arts used within modern sports, an 'effective' technique being deployed in a 'live' situation does NOT need to look good or conform to an unreasonable 'aesthetic'. The person being threatened, at the moment the decisive action is being deployed, is entirely on their own for the duration of the conflict. Whatever happens next becomes a matter entirely of their own affair - as other people (logically) tend to 'distance' themselves from the conflict as a matter of life-preservation and self-defence by association. Of course, the action might go wrong and the chosen technique fail to work. Above, a conflict begins between two young men (speaking Putonghua) arguing over who has the right to 'sell' in a certain area - with an Old Man attempting to de-escalate the situation. The young man launches a 'punching' attack which works precisely as intended. The armed young man is knocked down and is unconscious for a short time. He is kept in place by a foot on the chest - as NO further action is used against him once the knife is taken away from him. As you can see - violence is a horrible answer to any question - and a well disciplined and peaceful society is preferred over that of a violent situation. In this circumstance, the young man with the knife may well be suffering from mental health issues that now need to be treated. Although violence is NOT the answer - even though it may be required at certain times - when violence is needed it must be decisive enough to END the over-all level of existential violence and prevent any further damage to society and the people living in it!
The reality is that the head and centre mass inner organs need to be protected through a) movement of the entire body away from the potentially damaging blows, and b) the movement of the head, arms and legs so as to deflect, parry and/or block the incoming blows when the centre of mass cannot be adequately moved out the way. In the case of unarmed blows - the muscle, bone structure and inner connective tissue can be 'toughened' through physical fitness and martial arts training. The potential damage of these unarmed blows can be effectively absorbed by the outer physical and near surface structures of the body - this includes the bone structures and soft structures that comprise the entirety of skull including the mouth, teeth and tongue, etc. These areas can be 'damaged' but will heal given time. When dealing with bladed weapons - as these can penetrate the toughened outer layers and do fatal damage to the inner organs - movement of the centre mass is of a greater concern if no self-defensive weapon is held by the victim.
In this case the legs must be well trained for either minute or substantial (instantaneous) distance adjustment. A damaged leg will still have to move by necessity (hence the importance of squat kicks in all their variants). The upper limbs comprising the arms and hands will have to 'deflect' and/or catch or absorb the thrusts of any incoming bladed weapons that cannot be completely avoided by systemic (evasive) movement. This may involve the substantial damage of these body parts which must be conditioned to perform this function whilst carrying-on moving for the duration of the self-defence encounter. These types of injuries can heal (regardless of severity and any potential or long-term damage). An individual will probably survive broken or cut arms and hands - but will not survive damaged or cut inner organs, arteries or veins, etc, as the medical chances are greatly reduced.
The outer limbs can be sacrificed to protect the inner organs and blood supply vessels which lie across the centre line. There are cases of individuals surviving horrific injuries following attacks from blades weapons – even with severe mi-section laceration damaging and exposing the intestines, severe and deep cuts to the neck area and even limbs hacked-off – providing medical care can be found in time. Chances of survival are enhanced if the individual concerned has some medical knowledge and First Aid experience – as this can stem blood loss and prolong the chances of survival. Of course, traditional Chinese martial arts often involve extensive mental toughness regimen – and it is this attribute that can drive a severely injured individual to a) ‘survive’ a deadly encounter (despite being badly hurt), and b) seek-out assistance despite being isolated or far away from medical help.
The funny thing is that component movements of the Islamic martial art of 'Chaquan' looks identical to our 'Hakka' Longfist Style - even down to the applications - but Longfist is generic and certainly not rare! It comprises hundreds (or thousands) of Northern Styles and is common-place (it has even penetrated a number of Southern Styles). We all approach these movements from our different lineage perspectives - but all traditions use the 'external', 'Internal' and 'Integrated' aspects of ancient Chinese science.
My research suggests that the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) instigated a country-wide martial culture - probably through a specially constructed manual comprised of illustrations and basic directions. As the Qin Emperor expanded the model of the Qin State (originally situated in Northwest China) across the whole of the conquered territories of what is today considered 'China' (which excluded at the time the swamp-infested area of what is now Fujian province) - this 'unity' of culture spread over a massive geographical area and converted every village into a military barracks - and ordered that every local man, women and child became a 'soldier' serving the Qin State whilst having to train in a standardised martial art (both 'armed' and 'unarmed').
This makes Longfist over two-thousand years old - and pre-existing the arrival of Muslims in China by about 1,200 years! The Arab merchants constructed their Chaquan version of Longfist from what they saw around them in the areas of China they had settled within (possibly acquired from the families of the Chinese women they married). Of course, this specialised Longfist was then taught to non-Muslim Chinese people (for various reasons) over-time - so that today Chaquan is practiced by millions of ethnic Han people - as well as Hui Chinese-Muslims. Hakka gongfu is typically 'Confucian' with Buddhist and Daoist overtones. There are theories, however, that suggest the 'Qin' and 'Han' Dynasties may have been 'Hakka' - that is founded by displaced peoples who originally lived on the edges of geographical Northern China (before migrating Southward) and which had developed cultures that mixed 'Han' and 'non-Han' (Barbarian) cultural elements together.
This history is disputed, but certainly DNA studies have linked (modern) Hakka women living within South China with (Evenk) women living today in Siberia. Certainly, our Spear Forms were originally practiced (in-part) whilst riding a Steppe pony and gripping and steering the animal with the legs - whilst keeping the hands free to wield the spear from one side to the other without striking the animal's head. Later, when ponies were nolonger available - the 'Horse Stance' was developed to take their place in training. The 'Horse Stance' used to prepare the practitioner by building the lower-body strength for riding a Steppe pony through 'holding' the stance for long periods of time. Today, most practitioners use this method for strength-building - but have no knowledge of the historical development behind its structure.
The external method of withdrawing blood flow away from the surface of the body involves either bathing in very cold water – or rubbing ice all over the body. The cold closes the capillaries and diverts blood flow away from the surface skin area as if the outside environment were very cold and the body had to defend itself against the possibility of ‘freezing’. Blood flow (as ‘heat’) is diverted away from the surface area and into the inner organs to keep the much more important inner organs functionally healthily. For fighting that could risk the possibility of the surface body becoming bruised or cut – with drawing the blood supply away from the surface skin is an important attribute. Within the Ch’an Dao Style we do not make use of the this ‘external’ version of closing the surface capillaries using ‘ice’ or ‘cold water’, indeed, we do not any external substance. We practice a Hakka Gongfu (internal) meditational method which ‘withdraws’ blood supply from the capillaries as a matter of cultivated ‘will-power’. Just as the mind conceives the requirement for the outer blood flow to be diverted toward the inner organs – the body makes the adjustments. As sparring of this kind traditionally occurs between 10 am-12 pm – the Hakka Gongfu practitioner often finds the blood flow habitually ‘withdrawing’ in the morning so that, for instance, it would be difficult for a doctor or a nurse to take a sample of the blood from the arms or hands – as the capillaries are ‘closed’ at the surface where the needle penetrates. Blood flow returns to the surface of the skin as the body heads into the afternoon – unless a sparring match or honour match is set to happen. This prevents extensive bruising and cuts that might lose a lot of blood. Following the meditation usually means that the capillaries will close regularly every morning and open in the afternoon. Very advanced Masters of the Hakka Gongfu martial arts have been said to stop the extensive bleeding often associated with terrible wounds such as having hands or feet partly or fully chopped-off! Although unconscious this ability has saved their lives.
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.