The reality is that the head and centre mass inner organs need to be protected through a) movement of the entire body away from the potentially damaging blows, and b) the movement of the head, arms and legs so as to deflect, parry and/or block the incoming blows when the centre of mass cannot be adequately moved out the way. In the case of unarmed blows - the muscle, bone structure and inner connective tissue can be 'toughened' through physical fitness and martial arts training. The potential damage of these unarmed blows can be effectively absorbed by the outer physical and near surface structures of the body - this includes the bone structures and soft structures that comprise the entirety of skull including the mouth, teeth and tongue, etc. These areas can be 'damaged' but will heal given time. When dealing with bladed weapons - as these can penetrate the toughened outer layers and do fatal damage to the inner organs - movement of the centre mass is of a greater concern if no self-defensive weapon is held by the victim.
In this case the legs must be well trained for either minute or substantial (instantaneous) distance adjustment. A damaged leg will still have to move by necessity (hence the importance of squat kicks in all their variants). The upper limbs comprising the arms and hands will have to 'deflect' and/or catch or absorb the thrusts of any incoming bladed weapons that cannot be completely avoided by systemic (evasive) movement. This may involve the substantial damage of these body parts which must be conditioned to perform this function whilst carrying-on moving for the duration of the self-defence encounter. These types of injuries can heal (regardless of severity and any potential or long-term damage). An individual will probably survive broken or cut arms and hands - but will not survive damaged or cut inner organs, arteries or veins, etc, as the medical chances are greatly reduced.
The outer limbs can be sacrificed to protect the inner organs and blood supply vessels which lie across the centre line. There are cases of individuals surviving horrific injuries following attacks from blades weapons – even with severe mi-section laceration damaging and exposing the intestines, severe and deep cuts to the neck area and even limbs hacked-off – providing medical care can be found in time. Chances of survival are enhanced if the individual concerned has some medical knowledge and First Aid experience – as this can stem blood loss and prolong the chances of survival. Of course, traditional Chinese martial arts often involve extensive mental toughness regimen – and it is this attribute that can drive a severely injured individual to a) ‘survive’ a deadly encounter (despite being badly hurt), and b) seek-out assistance despite being isolated or far away from medical help.
Watching this (and all the excellrnt videos you have forwarded) - Ju jitsu looks like Qinna - or an element of Qinna. Qinna - or 'Joint Relocation' as Master Chan referred to it in Hakka - emphasises breaking bones, dislocating and/or snapping joints, but only in its highest or most deadliest aspect. The Chinese language instructional texts talk of the 'grip' being developed so that 'skin' is torn-off and 'bones' shattered like glass!
a) Ju Jitsu (柔術) = 'Rou Shu' - or 'Soft Expertise/Art'. An ethnic Chinese speaker once explained the underlying concept behind the 'Rou' (柔) ideogram to me as 'to ride in another person's rickshaw' - which I thought was superb! Not just 'borrowing' - but if need be - 'stealing' another person's vehicle of transportation (or mode of 'movement') certainly with their knowledge (after-all, they are 'present'), but equally 'without their consent' (as the resulting outcome is often contrary to that desired by the opponent)!
b) Qin Na (擒拿) = 'Catch Relocate' (Probably 'Kin Na' in the Japanese language).
Working down from that level of destruction, there is the well-known 'controlling' of the opponent through 'light' joint relocation designed to 'move' the body around (from an 'inconvenient' place to a 'convenient' place), or to 'disarm' or 'subdue' whilst leaving the opponent or assailent relatively 'unharmed'. Indeed, what makes genuine Taijiquan so effective is its inner core of guiding Qinna. Coupled, of course, with the mastering of the dropped bodyweight through an aligned bone structure - and the efficient directing of the resulting 'rebounding' force from the ground to the extremities - a process which allows for the generation of tremendous 'breaking' force with apparently 'little' effort!
Within the Chinese language encyclopaedias, the clothing worn by ‘Karate-Do’ practitioners is described as being the attire required when cultivating the ‘Dao’ (道) or ‘Way’. During the era of the Ryukyu Kingdom, there are no historical records which support the idea that the white ‘gi’ clothing was worn by Karate-Do practitioners, or any strata of Ryukyu society for other types of activity. Within photographs taken before the Pacific War (1941-1945), most martial artists practice karate with the upper body being bear.
In the book entitled ‘Fist Law – Brief Introduction’ (拳法概说 - Quan Fa Gai Shou) published in 1929, Chōtoku Kiyan (喜屋武朝德) states that the reason for training with the upper-body uncovered is to toughen the skin and the general externality of the body. When the Japanese Crown Prince Hirohito visited Okinawa in 1921, however, a demonstration of martial arts was arranged for him in the main hall of Shuri Castle. This was overssen by Funakoshi Gichin (aka ‘Rong Yiren’ [容宜仁]) who insisted that all those participating should wear a white shirt whilst in the presence of royalty (out of respect)!
The white ‘gi’ which is commonly worn today when practicing Karate-Do originates from the clothing worn in the Kodokan during 1922 by Funakoshi Gichin when demonstrating Karate-Do on the Japanese Mainland. He ordered special White cotton cloth from the ‘Kanda’ (神田) area (famous for its ancient Shinto Shrines) - and hand-sewed a Karate-Do ‘gi’ using the general design of the training outfit worn by practitioners of Judo!
This is the earliest recorded Karate-Do uniform in the historical literature. During 1934, in the magazine entitled ‘Empty Hand Research and Study’ (空手研究 - Kong Shou Yan Jiu) an advertisement appeared offering a pre-made Karate-Do uniform for sale! These products started selling in the early Showa period. As Karate-Do and Judo are very different martial arts that place different stresses and strains upon the material – the two types of ‘gi’ used for these activities has generally diversified into very different directions.
The Japanese Kanji ideogram ‘着’ (Gi) refers to ‘wearing clothes’ and the act of physically ‘touching’ and/or otherwise ‘making contact’ (both actions of which appear to reflect the art of Judo precisely). The equivalent Chinese ideogram (which I can read) is ‘著’ (zhuo2):
Top Particle = ‘艹’ (cao3) - literally refers ‘grass that is growing’ upward toward the daylight!
Middle Particle = ‘耂’ (lao3) - an old man with long white hair and beard - bent over with age and wisdom!
Bottom Particle = ‘白’ (bai2) - the colour ‘white’ or ‘brightness’ of the Moon!
As the Kanji of ‘着’ (Gi) and the Chinese ideogram ‘著’ (zhuo2) convey an identical meaning, we appear to have a type of grass that grows and is weaved into a white cloth. This white cloth is then ‘holy’ and ‘sacred’ as it encompasses an activity that cultivates the respect owed to an old man – and the acquisition of the wisdom the old man already (and quite naturally possesses)!
NOTE: Our gongfu teacher – Master Chan Tin Sang (1924-1993) - when I asked about the Karate-Do ‘gi’ - explained to me that the Karate-Do people are always training for death – death of the ego, death of their own body and the death of the opponent! He meant that the hard physical training always prepares the mind for non-attachment to the physical world (this achieves the death of attachment), whilst the Karate-Ka strives to face their own death (whether natural or unnatural) with equanimity. They train to purify their own minds and bodies so that they can produce the perfect punch or kick! Master Chan said the ‘gi’ is ‘white’ in colour because in Asia ‘White’ is the colour of ‘death’ and of ‘respect’. Indeed, when a Chinese person dies, those who follow the Confucian tradition of mourning and respect where a white, hooded outfit that is very similar in structure and design to the Karate-Do ‘gi’, or it can be (as designs differ). Furthermore, in China, I have seen senior Buddhist monks who wear black outer robes – often also wearing an inner white two-piece cotton suit very similar to a Karate-Do ‘gi’! I mention all this as I wonder if the people of Ryukyu followed the tradition of wearing white (Confucian) mourning clothes – which is a cultural habit thousands of years old in the Chinese-influenced parts of Asia! I was also once told that the Karate-Do ‘gi’ was once the normal dress for Tang Dynasty China – but apparently there is no evidence for its presence on Ryukyu prior to the 1920s!
Chinese Language Source:
Chinese Language Source:
The external method of withdrawing blood flow away from the surface of the body involves either bathing in very cold water – or rubbing ice all over the body. The cold closes the capillaries and diverts blood flow away from the surface skin area as if the outside environment were very cold and the body had to defend itself against the possibility of ‘freezing’. Blood flow (as ‘heat’) is diverted away from the surface area and into the inner organs to keep the much more important inner organs functionally healthily. For fighting that could risk the possibility of the surface body becoming bruised or cut – with drawing the blood supply away from the surface skin is an important attribute. Within the Ch’an Dao Style we do not make use of the this ‘external’ version of closing the surface capillaries using ‘ice’ or ‘cold water’, indeed, we do not any external substance. We practice a Hakka Gongfu (internal) meditational method which ‘withdraws’ blood supply from the capillaries as a matter of cultivated ‘will-power’. Just as the mind conceives the requirement for the outer blood flow to be diverted toward the inner organs – the body makes the adjustments. As sparring of this kind traditionally occurs between 10 am-12 pm – the Hakka Gongfu practitioner often finds the blood flow habitually ‘withdrawing’ in the morning so that, for instance, it would be difficult for a doctor or a nurse to take a sample of the blood from the arms or hands – as the capillaries are ‘closed’ at the surface where the needle penetrates. Blood flow returns to the surface of the skin as the body heads into the afternoon – unless a sparring match or honour match is set to happen. This prevents extensive bruising and cuts that might lose a lot of blood. Following the meditation usually means that the capillaries will close regularly every morning and open in the afternoon. Very advanced Masters of the Hakka Gongfu martial arts have been said to stop the extensive bleeding often associated with terrible wounds such as having hands or feet partly or fully chopped-off! Although unconscious this ability has saved their lives.
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.