The academic problem with this type of article - is that it is discussing a Chinese martial culture transported to Okinawa (which was a tributary State of China until 1879) - and yet possesses no Chinese language references. (Chinese martial arts do not originate in America or Japan). It is US and Japanese trends in their own respective academic traditions - reinforcing (without any Chinese input) their own ideas about China (regardless of whether any of the knowledge claims are 'true' or 'false'). The single 'Chinese' reference comes from a Chinese-American (JM Yang) - who could not prove any of his lineage claims in China, etc. A good example that breaks through this type of thinking in the West (and Japan) is Brian Victoria's 'Zen At War' (an uncomfortable read for many). Brian Victoria is an Australian who lives in Japan - and yet can read, write and speak the Japanese language. He explains how many post-WWII Japanese 'Zen' and 'martial' heroes in the West where well-known 'War Criminals' in Japan - with DT Suzuki serving as just one example. The translation work of Thomas and JC Cleary also often exposes the US-Japanese lie which falsely suggests Chinese Buddhism 'died-out' in China and is only now preserved within Japan! Master Xu Yun (1840-1959) had much to say on the Japanese behaviour abroad being motivated by their 'Nationalism' and a lack of basic Buddhist and Confucian morality - even thought 'Shinto' (Shen Dao) - in its Chinese original form - could possibly be a type of 'Daoist' nature worship!