The earliest Western mention of ‘China’ (as ‘Seres’ - Greek for ‘Land of Silk’) seems to be in the 4th century BCE work of the Greek physician and historian ‘Ctesias’ (Κτησίας) of Cnidus (now in Turkey) who was born c. 416 BCE. This is described in the 2008 Chinese language book entitled ‘中国与罗马 - Zhong Guo Yu Luoma) or ‘China and Rome’ written by the esteemed Mainland Chinese academic Qui Jin (丘进). In a book of anecdotes describing the inhabited regions of the world, Ctesias is quoted as saying,
‘The people of Seres and North India are said to be strong and tall in stature! It is said that some can grow as tall as 13 cubits! (a single ‘Coudee’ or ‘Cubit’ = approximately 0.5m). It is not uncommon for these people to live for 200 years!’
The modern science of archaeology – when applied around the world - tends to support the idea that both China and the Greek and Roman worlds possessed vague and hazy ideas regarding one another’s existence certainly during the early centuries BCE. We are on firmer ground during the year 97 CE, when it is recorded that the Eastern Han Dynasty of China attempted to send an emissary - named ‘Gan Ying’ (甘英) - to Rome but that his journey was blocked by the Parthians. Han Dynasty records further state that the Roman emperors Antoninus Pius (86-161 CE) and Marcus Aurelius (121-180 CE) both sent envoys from Rome to China. In the case of the latter, the Roman emissary reached China in 166 CE – landing at a place called ‘Rinan’ (日南) County before being escorted to Louyang! The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire, however, conducted commercial trade prior to making direct political contact from around the 1st century CE (through third parties and middlemen, etc) using the maritime and land-based Silk Roads. The Han Dynasty exported fine silk to Rome, whilst the Romans exported glassware and equally high-quality clothing fabrics to the Han Dynasty.
This early history is relevant when considering the interesting historical finds announced in the Japanese press during 2016! Around September 26th, 2016, The Japan Times (and many other publications) broadcast the story that Japanese archaeologists had been conducting exploratory excavations (since 2013) within the grounds of the ruined Katsuren Castle in Okinawa (which had existed between the 12th-15th centuries CE) located near Uruma City. On this day, however, things were a little different as Japanese archaeologist - Toshio Tsukamoto it was announced - had discovered four badly worn copper coins (measuring between 1.6 and 2 cm in diameter) thought to have been minted at in ancient Rome at some point during the 4th century CE. Hiroki Miyagi, an archaeologist at Okinawa International University, explained: "Katsuren Castle belonged to the Ryukyu Kingdom during the 14th and 15th centuries and was the only channel for trade between Japan and China. At that time, East Asian merchants mainly used Chinese ‘square-hole’ (方孔 - Fang Kong) money as currency, and Western currency was unknown in this part of the world. If Roman-era coins were circulating in Japan, it is speculated that this ancient currency may have flowed into the Ryukyu Kingdom from China or Southeast Asia.” It was also reported that one 17th century CE Ottoman Empire coin had been discovered during the ‘dig’, together with five other metallic objects also thought to be coins. Of course, what Hiroki Miyagi falls to mention is that when these coins were thought to have been deposited on the island - ‘Okinawa’ (or more properly ‘Liuqiu’) was part of China and not part of Japan! It was only from 1609 onwards following the Satsuma invasion that ‘Liuqiu’ became nominally a part of Japan – whilst its three Kings continued to send tribute to the Chinese emperor out of respect. It was only with the 1879 ‘annexation’ of ‘Liuqiu’ (and the surrounding islands) by the Imperial Japanese Army that ‘Liuqiu’ was renamed ‘Okinawa’ and the island chain it is a part of became known as ‘Ryukyu’ (the Japanese pronunciation of ‘Liuqiu’).
When did ‘Liuqui’ become a distant part of the Chinese empire and when was this small island integrated into the umbrella that it is Chinese culture? Sui Dynasty (581-618 CE) records mention contact with an island referred to as ‘Liuqiuguo’ (流求國) - or the ‘Flow Attract’ Country (perhaps suggesting a country the tides of the South China Sea will take you toward quite naturally). This is recorded in the:
a) ‘Sui Dynasty Historical Records’ (隋書 - Sui Shu) – with the relevant data entered as follows:
b) Volume 81 - ‘Eastern Barbarian – List of Histories and Descriptions’ (東夷列傳 - Dong Yi Lie Chuan)
c) Chapter 29 - ‘Chen Ling Biography’ (陳稜傳 - Chen Ling Chuan)
c) Chapter 46 - ‘Flow Attract Country History and Description’ (流求國傳 - Liu Qiu Guo Chuan)
d) Chapter 64 - ‘List of Histories and Descriptions’ (列傳 - Lie Chuan)
This history records (and details) the Sui emperor ‘Yang’ (煬) [569-618 CE] who reigned 604-618 CE – and his mounting of a successful seaborne expedition to attack and conquer the distant island known as ‘Liuqiu’. Liuqiu (pronounced ‘Ryukyu’ in the Okinawan and Japanese languages) lies around 500 miles due East of the coast of Fujian province. This was not an act of wanton aggression upon the part of the Chinese State – but rather a policing action whereby Chinese villains and rebels had fled China and were carrying out pirate activities and other disruptive endeavours. Although some scholars have tried to suggest these records are discussing the island of Taiwan, the academic consensus is that Taiwan is far too big and far too close to Mainland China to serve as a safe haven for fleeing Chinese bandits, and is so close to the Chinese Mainland, that it does not fit the description of the difficulties the Chinese fleet had locating and navigating its way to the island of ‘Luiqiu’! Furthermore, no one in Taiwan had heard of the Chinese descriptive term of ‘Liuqiu’ - whereas in Okinawa the local people have referred to their island as ‘Ryukyu’ (‘Liuqiu’) for centuries!
The Sui Dynasty Historical Record States:
1) 607 CE - During the second month of the third year of the reign of emperor Yang (607 CE) – the Cavalry Commander Zhu Kuan (朱寬) was ordered to travel eastward to visit and make contact with the people of ‘Liuqiu’! Due to the language barrier, however, all that was achieved was the kidnapping of one local person who was forcibly returned to China!
2) 608 CE - During the fourth year of the reign of emperor Yang (608 CE) - Cavalry Commander Zhu Kuan was ordered to lead a military expedition and invade the ‘Liuqiu’ island – but he refused to obey the order and instead ‘returned his cloth armour’!
3) 610 CE - During the sixth year of the reign of emperor Yang (610 CE) – a very large seaborne military expedition (consisting of 10,000 soldiers) was launched from Mainland China – led by General ‘Chen Ling’ (陳稜) and Senior Minister ‘Zhang Zhenzhou’ (張鎮州) - which was successful in traversing the rough seas, finding and landing on ‘Liuqiu’ island – where the local forces were met in combat and defeated! Thousands of men and women were captured and returned to Mainland China.
4) It is said that this third militarised seaborne expedition was the consequence of Chinese rebels that had:
a) Defied and opposed the Sui Dynasty emperor before fleeing to ‘Liuqiu’, before
b) Being pursued, confronted, apprehended and finally returned to the Mainland China to face trial.
The Chinese name ‘Liuqiu’ was used during the Tang and Song Dynasties (referring to the Ryukyu Islands) and was even retained during the Islamic Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 CE). Although ‘Liuqiu’ (流求) was retained as a place defined as being under the influence of the Chinese cultural umbrella – the Yuan Dynasty - however, altered the spelling of the name to the similar sounding ‘琉求’ (Liuqiu). This changed the usage of the traditional first ideogram of ‘流’ (liu2) [meaning ‘flow’ or ‘tradition’] and replaced it with the new ideogram of ‘琉’ (liu2) [which means ‘precious’]. This was only a very slight change – adding the beautifying particle ‘⺩’ (yu4) meaning ‘jade’ to the left-hand side of the ideogram – a typical Islamic gesture of respect and good will. Despite this recognition, the treacherous seas separating Mainland China from ‘Liuqiu’ meant that communication was spasmodic. Even though Japanese envoys routinely visited China – it was clear that the ‘Ryukyu’ Island were not considered part of Japan by the Japanese themselves - certainly not prior to the 17th century. All of this background information is required if the 2016 discovery of Roman coins on the island of Okinawa is to be properly contextualised and understood.
During 1372 CE, the Ming emperor ‘Taizu’ (太祖) sent his envoy – Yang Zai (楊載) - to ‘Liuqiu’ to formalise diplomatic relations. King Zhongshan (中山 ) of the Ryukyu Islands agreed that a regular ‘Tribute’ (貢 - Gong) should be paid to the Chinese Court in exchange for military protection, political affiliation and cultural exchange (all favouring the Ryukyu people). A major problem hindering this arrangement was a) the distance of around 500 miles one way, and b) the unpredictable and terrible weather and rough seas! The Chinese Court attempted to solve this issue in 1392 CE by despatching the so-called thirty-six families (or ‘name clans’) from various areas of Fujian province to be resettled on the ‘Liuqiu’ island. This probably amounted to hundreds of men, women and children who were settled at a place termed ‘Kume Village’ or the ‘Chinese Village’. These people were chosen for their skills in growing, harvesting and sustaining forests (for producing wood), ship designing and ship building, as well as ship navigators and pilots! The purpose of this relocation was to establish efficient, open and permanent sea-lanes between ‘Liuqiu’ and Mainland China (mainly with the adjacent Fujian coast). With these people came many other important arts and crafts – including house building, animal husbandry, Chinese medicine, farming and various forms of Fujian martial arts.
Of course, Chinese martial arts had been deployed on ‘Liuqiu’ since 607 CE, and it is thought a general transmission of these arts were made to the island from that time onward. As ‘Liuqiu’ people were considered ‘Chinese’ in the political sense, then in all likelihood it is plausible to assume that Mainland Chinese soldiers stationed on ‘Liuqiu’, and Chinese migrants living in ‘Liuqiu’ were willing to teach their martial arts to individuals outside of their immediate families (probably more so in the case of soldiers). From 1392 CE onwards, however, the Chinese settlers on ‘Liuqiu’ were acting under orders to relay as much Chinese cultural knowledge as possible to the local ‘Liuqiu’ people. This arrangement existed for 217 years without interruption until the Japanese ‘Satsuma’ invasion of the ‘Ryukyu’ Islands in 1609 CE! There was intense military resistance from the local ‘Chinese’ and indigenous ‘Liuqiu’ people – but being so far from Mainland China (and so close to Mainland Japan) the local inhabitants were eventually defeated. This development led to a dual influence operating on on ‘Liuqiu’ which involved the local population still voluntarily sending tribute to China – whilst nominally acknowledging a political association with Japan. This situation persisted for another 270 years before the modern soldiers of Imperial Japan invaded and annexed ‘Ryukyu’ - renaming the island ‘Okinawa’ and ‘banning’ any and all ‘Chinese’ cultural influence! From 1879 onwards the ‘new’ history of Okinawa sought to downplay, negate and expunge the extensive cultural input China exercised over the development of ‘Liuqiu’!
This poat-1879 negative attitude toward China is very different to the respect and deference once shown by many Japanese people from the Sui Dynasty onwards, including the 13th century Japanese Zen Buddhist monk known as ‘Dogen’ [道元 - Dao Yuan] (1200-1253) - as recorded in his magnus Opus entitled the ‘Shobogenzo’ (正法眼蔵 - Zheng Fa Yan Cang) - which records his travels to China and respectfully represents the Chinese cultural education he received, valued and preserved! What this suggests is that a) ‘Liuqiu’ was not considered part of Japan until the late 19th century despite an unconvincing Satsuma claim in the 17th century – which was half-hearted at best – and b) neither ‘Liuqiu’ nor Japan were part of any known ancient pathway or trade route which would have linked these areas with 4th century CE Rome! At least not officially, although accidental shipwrecks cannot be totally ruled out. This is important as many of the 2016 news stories edge toward the idea that ‘Okinawa’ (as an active and prominent part of ancient Japan) was part of a ‘hidden’ or otherwise ‘obscure’ ancient trade route that neither ‘Rome’ (nor any other major participant) bothered to name or record in their otherwise extensively kept trade histories! In other words, there is no known or recorded ancient trade route which linked Japan (much less ‘Liuqiu’) to 4th century Rome!
The earliest mention of what is thought to be ‘Liuqiu’ (Ryukyu) is in 607 CE, although there is some debate about whether this might refer to the island of Taiwan. If this is not ‘Liuqiu’ (Ryukyu) then it is not until 1372 CE (during the Ming Dynasty) that ‘Liuqiu’ (Ryukyu) is mentioned. This is 765 years later and would imply that ‘Liuqiu’ (Ryukyu) remained obscure and isolated for far longer than first thought! To add another layer of uncertainty to this issue, it is also true that toward the end of the Ming Dynasty, The Northern part of Taiwan was known as ‘Xiao Liuqiu’ (小琉求) or ‘Small Liuqiu’ with what is today known as ‘Okinawa’ being referred to as ‘Da Liuqiu’ (大琉求) or ‘Great Liuqiu)! Even so, the balance of probabilities suggest that the 607 CE (and after) encounters strongly suggest that the current Okinawa was the location of the Chinese seaborne expeditions, particularly when it is considered that the island nation itself possessed ‘three Kings’ - a point of historical fact certainly not attributable to Taiwan! If the date ‘607 CE’ is the time that ‘Liuqiu’ (Ryukyu) enters the history books, then this is 270 years after the death of the Roman emperor – Constantine I (272-337) - also known as ‘Constantine the Great’. When all this information is considered, what were these Roman-era coins doing in the foundations of a ruined ‘Liuqiu’ castle?
The thirty-six families that relocated in ‘Liuqiu’ from Fujian province must have resulted in hundreds of people suddenly arriving on the island and establishing a settlement from 1392 CE onwards. Perhaps Roman coins had found their way to Fujian province (the gateway to China for centuries) and had become symbols of good luck to be placed in prominent places. Japanese language sources state that the four Roman-era coins were discovered within the 14th and 15th century layers of the ruined foundations of Katsuren Castle – which was destroyed in 1458 CE during internecine fighting. These layers of excavation coincide with the arrival of highly skilled Fujian migrants from the Mainland of China. I suspect these 2016 Roman coin finds were deliberately dropped into the foundation of Katsuren Castle by the Fujian Chinese migrants (for good luck) when they were helping to build and/or repair the structure (as there is a disagreement within Japanese academia as to exactly ‘when’ the castle was ‘built’ and started ‘functioning’)! The point I am making is that ‘Liuqui’ was part of China during this part of its history and so these Roman-era coins, regardless of how they arrived in ‘Liuqiu’, were in a remote part of ‘China’ and not an external ‘Prefecture’ of Japan. Between 1897-2000 CE, forty-six (Byzantine) Eastern Roman Empire (330-1453 CE) coins were discovered in China (mostly in old tombs but occasionally already held in museums or as artefacts under private ownership). To date, there has now been over fifty (ancient) Roman coins discovered throughout China, all mostly gold and belonging to the earlier Byzantine Roman period (these gold coins begin to appear in a significant number during the 6th century CE, with copper and Sassanid silver preceding). A few examples of the finds of Roman coinage in China include:
a) 1895: At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Westerners obtained sixteen Roman copper coins in Lingshi County, Huozhou, Shanxi Province, which were cast from the time of the Roman emperor Tiberius (42 BCE–37 CE) to emperor Antoninus Pius (86-161 CE). Technically speaking, these finds cover the periods of the ‘Roman Republic’ (509-27 BCE) and the ‘Roman Empire’ (27BCE-395 CE).
b) 1953: It is ironic that ‘Liuqiu’ first enters the written history books during the Sui Dynasty of China, as in 1953 Chinese archaeologists unearthed a gold ‘Justin II’ (d. 578) Roman-era coin, minted during the early (Byzantine) Eastern Roman Empire (330-1453 CE) period and discovered in the Sui Dynasty tomb of ‘Dugu Luo’ (獨孤羅) [534-599]! This tomb was situated in a small village of ‘Dizhangwan’, near the city of Xianyang in Shaanxi province.
c) 1961: A replica gold coin featuring the image of the Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius I (575-641 CE) was discovered within a Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) tomb located in Tumen Village in the Xi'an (Chang’an) area of Shaanxi province.
d) 1977: Whilst excavating the Eastern Wei Dynasty (534-550 CE) tomb of the Official ‘Li Xizong’ (李希宗) [501-540] situated in the Zanhuang County area of Hebei - a Roman coin featuring the portrait of ‘Theodosius II’ (401-450 CE) was discovered - an emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire!
e) 1977: The same dig at the Tang Dynasty tomb site in the Zanhuang County area of Hebei – there were discovered two gold coins featuring the co-rulers of emperor ‘Justin I’ (450-527 CE) and his ‘nephew’ (Justinian) - who would eventually become emperor ‘Justinian I’ (482-565 CE).
f) 1978: At a dig in the Ci County area of Hebei province, a Roman gold coin was found in the tomb of Princess ‘Linhe’ (邻和) [538-550 CE] of the Eastern Wei Dynasty (534-550 CE). This Roman coin dated to the reign of emperor Anastasius I Dicorus (431-518 CE) of the Eastern Roman Empire! The coin is 17.6 mm in diameter, 0.54 mm thick, and weighs 3.1 grams.
g) 1998: During early June in the Guyuan County area of Ningxia (near Gansu province), a Roman coin dated to the reign of emperor Anastasius I Dicorus (431-518 CE) of the Eastern Roman Empire was found on farmland! The coin is 17.6 mm in diameter, 0.54 mm thick, and weighs 3.1 grams and was discovered alongside fragments of a yellow-glazed porcelain flat pot.
h) 2000: A farmer from Anbian (安边) Town was out tending his fields in Dingbian County, Shaanxi province, when he discovered an early Eastern Roman Empire (330-1453 CE) gold coin that had been welded onto a metal ring. The date and Roman emperor could not be discerned due to the corroded state of the artefact.
The copper coins discovered in Okinawa in 2016 are very badly worn and difficult to read, but it is believed they belong to ‘Constantine I’ (227-337 CE) and he ruled over the ‘unified’ Roman Empire (27BCE-395 CE). My view is that Fujian province, as a gateway into China, probably experienced a wealth of foreign goods, artefacts and many different types of currency. I suspect the hundreds of people who comprised the thirty-six Fujian clans of China carried with them tons of equipment, weapons, tools and all sorts of everyday and cultural objects – as well as various forms of paraphernalia – to build a new life on the island of ‘Liuqiu’ from 1392 CE onwards. Although Kasturen Castle on Okinawa is sometimes reported as existing between the 12th-15th century, there is still much debate about the exact date within Japanese archaeology, with many experts stating that the castle only existed between the 13th or 14th centuries before being destroyed in 1458 CE. One possibility missing in all these narratives is that the local Chinese population, many of whom were experts in construction of one sort or another, participated in the planning, designing, constructing and maintaining of Kasturen Castle. If this did happen, then I would suggest that a number of ‘foreign’ copper coins were placed in the foundation when the castle was being built, rebuilt or extended, etc, by the local Fujian (Chinese) population who were following a common practice back in their home country! Archaeology demonstrates that these ‘foreign’ coins were believed to possess some type of magical value in the afterlife whilst being placed in the tombs of the nobility, whilst ordinary Chinese people thought of these coins as objects of ‘feng shui’ (風水) or ‘wind’ and ‘water’ significance in the maintaining and augmenting of the natural flow of energy throughout the environment. What better way of ensuring the ‘safety’ and ‘strength’ of a fortified building than giving it a semi-magical ‘boost’ in the fulfilment of its defensive design capabilities. It is entirely plausible that ever since Roman envoys started landing on the coast of China during the 2nd century CE - it was Fujian province they were making first contact with, and it is through this interactive capacity that a number of Roman coins bearing the portrait and Latin mottoes of ‘Constantine I’ came into the possession of ordinary Fujian people. By latter generations laying these Roman coins in the foundations of Kasturen Castle – they were fulfilling part of their imperial duties which involved educating the ‘Liuqiu’ inhabitants in ALL aspects of Chinese arts and sciences – with ‘feng shui’ (geomancy) being viewed as being very important at the time – certainly as important as the ability to build seaworthy ships, fight properly or to understand and apply Chinese medical knowledge correctly!
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English Language Sources:
When the Japanese Made a Joke About 'Kara-Te': How ‘China Hand ' (唐手 - Tang Shou) Become ‘Empty Hand’ (空手 - Kong Shou)! (16.8.2022)
Author’s Note: My view is that the change of name from ‘Tang Hand’ to ‘Empty-Hand' was a blatant act of Japanese imperialist aggression and was intended to render an art full of ‘Chinese’ influence – into a fabricated state ‘emptiness’ - that is ‘empty’ of any and all Chinese influence! I am told that within the Japanese cultural milieu, this change (initiated by the Japanese Authorities in Okinawa) is considered ‘funny’ and an obvious ‘joke’ - even today! The problem is that whilst the Chinese people readily understand and know this to be the case – the Western (and other Asian and non-Chinese) people do not understand this situation and actively participate in this anti-China ‘joke’ by uncritically practicing ‘Japanese’ Karate-Do – even though it is clearly a martial art with deep Chinese historical, cultural and political roots! I am not suggesting a boycott of Karate-Do, far from it - I am encouraging the spread and utilisation of ALL Chinese cultural activities - but whilst doing this I am suggesting that all those millions of people who practice Karate-Do (空手道 - Kong Shou Dao) or the older ‘Karate-Jitsu’ (空手術 - Kong Shou Shu) - remember that these arts are ‘Chinese’ in historical and cultural origin and should be known as ‘Tang Hand Way’ (唐手道 - Tang Shou Dao) or ‘Tang Hand Art’ ((唐手術 - Tang Shou Shu), etc. With regards to the Chinese ideogram ‘手’ (shou3), it denotes an ‘open’ hand with the palm clearly showing and the fingers spread. This denotes four-fingers and thumb with various explanations associated with its structure. Sometimes, for instance, this ideogram is confused with the very similar ‘毛’ (mao2) which denotes the wing of a bird (and is used to refer to ‘fur’ or the ‘hair’ of an animal). However, ‘手’ (shou3) is comprised of the central particle ‘于’ (yu2) which can be interpreted as an ancient wind instrument (possibly held to the mouth by the hand to be ‘blown’). ‘于’ (yu2) is also viewed as a simplified version of ‘於’ (yu2) - which denotes an object, or a thing placed in a definite position (sometimes also used to refer to a ‘crow’ or black-feathered bird). This ideogram also suggests a ‘sudden’ interruption in proceedings! Added to ‘于’ (yu2) is the particle ‘一’ (yi1) which on its own represents the number ‘1’ (one) or ‘I’ in Roman numerals! Therefore, ‘手’ (shou3) represents a hand and palm with fingers spread which is both ‘open’ and in ‘motion’ - whilst being both ‘creative’ and ‘decisive’. It can be ‘closed’ if required or any part of it (such as a ‘palm’ or an ‘edge’) can be used to influence the environment in the martial context! The hand is only ‘open’ whilst in transit. The hand is ‘moving’ in a ‘fluid’ and ‘effective’ many whilst not being ‘limited’ to the ‘shape’ or ‘form’ it has to ‘assume’ or temporally ‘occupy’ whilst expressing a bewildering array of martial shapes, expressions and forms! To counter the supposed ‘humour’ of Japanese imperialism – I would confirm that ‘Kara-Te’ is ‘full’ (and not ‘empty’) of Chinese cultural inheritance! I would further add that I am in support of ‘loving’ the Japanese people – and ALL the peoples of the world who practice and spread the art of ‘Kara-Te’! ACW (16.8.2022)
Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868 – the Japanese Imperialist government embarked upon a rapid modernisation drive and an equally rapid expansion of Japanese political and cultural influence beyond its geographical borders! It is perhaps the greatest of ironies that Okinawa (Ryukyu) - an island nation politically and culturally associated with China for over a thousand years – possessed hundreds of highly trained martial artists (as well as thousands of amateur practitioners) - but did not possess a professional armed force dedicated to its own national defence! This is why the Japanese Imperial Army was able to land its forces unopposed in Okinawa in 1879 and the Japanese government was able to completely annex the island nation and separate and isolate its people from any and all Chinese cultural influence! The Japanese language replaced the Chinese language (and superseded the Okinawan dialect), and Japanese history replaced Chinese history. Despite these successes, however, the Japanese Authorities had to tread carefully as Qing Imperial China protested and threatened to send troops to the area – whilst the robust Okinawan people were more than capable of defending themselves against the over-zealous Japanese police and military!
Japanese Master Yoshitaka Inokuma (猪熊佳孝) Practices Shuri (首里) Ryu Karate-Do - and is 99 years old! As of 2019 He Has Been Practicing for 65 Years! He Lives in Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, He Says He No Longer Wears a Gi (White Uniform) or a Coloured Belt. He is Currently an 8th Dan and Still Teaches Students! His Approach to Teaching Karate-Do Seems Very 'Chinese' in Essence!
According to conventual thinking, within the Okinawan dialect (which is a mixture of Chinese, Japanese and indigenous languages), the Chinese term ‘唐’ (Tang) used to refer to the Tang Dynasty and for centuries taken to mean the country of China – is pronounced ‘Kara’. The Japanese Authorities substituted the Chinese ‘唐’ (Tang-Kara) for the Kanji Japanese equivalent of ‘空’ (Kong-Kara). The name of the martial art appeared to stay the same on the surface – ‘Kara-Te' - but changed completely beneath the surface! This was an act of blatant imperialist domination on behalf of the Japanese themselves, and despite such people as Funakoshi Gichin playing along with it (pretending the change had something to do with the philosophy contained within the Buddhist Heart Sutra), its only purpose was the complete eradication of all Chinese cultural influence upon the island! This process saw ‘唐手’(Tang Shou – Kara Te) - or ‘China Open Hand Martial Art’ - become instead the Japanese art of ‘空手’ (Kong Shou – Kara-Te) or the ‘Empty Open Hand’ - despite these many martial systems often incorporating the extensive use of traditional martial arts weaponry! Despite this change, the problem the Japanese Authorities had was that very few of the prominent martial arts Masters on the island took any notice of the ‘new’ name and continued to teach their martial arts as being distinctly ‘Chinese’ in origin, nature and expression!
It was not until 1936 (the 11th year of the Showa era) that this matter was resolved. Japan had begun military hostilities in China during 1931 and was gearing-up for a more serious and widespread confrontation with China. To assist this process the Japanese government had been propagating extensive anti-China propaganda and informing the Japanese people not to associate themselves in anyway with Chinese culture. It did not take long for this negative attitude to infiltrate Okinawa and influence the martial arts community. In the Okinawan city of Naha, a symposium of many of the country’s leading martial artists was held to decide upon a distinctly ‘Japanese’ cultural expression for their respective martial arts. All the ‘Kara-Te’ Masters discussed this matter and unanimously decided to change the name of their martial art from ‘唐手’(Tang Shou – Kara Te) to ‘空手’ (Kong Shou – Kara-Te) - with each ‘denying’ or ‘rejecting’ any historical or cultural link with China! Despite Japan losing the Pacific War (1941-1945) it had started with the US, and the Second Sino-Japanese (1937-1945) it had started with China (Japan actually began hostilities in Manchuria during 1931) - the situation regarding ‘Kara-Te’ did not change. Indeed, the post-1945 US government facilitated the spread of ‘Kara-Te’ around the world as a means to eradicate and obscure all Chinese martial cultural influences throughout the West! Despite Japanese Imperialism killing millions throughout Asia during the 1930s and 1940s – the racially motivated change of ‘Chinese Hand’ to ‘Empty Hand’ was allowed to hold fast despite making no historical or logical sense whatsoever! This is even true amongst reasonably intelligent Westerners who would otherwise protest about any form of racism should they encounter it! Indeed, Okinawan people should throw-off the cloak of Japanese and US oppression and reclaim their martial arts as being ‘Chinese Hand’ - whilst remaining proud of this fact!
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1900 The Great Boxer Uprising and China’s Subsequent Darkest Moment as Experienced Through Western Eyes
Translator’s Note: The following article is collected from Western and Japanese accounts of the Boxer Uprising (1898-1901) - still referred to in the West by the racist epithet the ‘Boxer Rebellion’ (the US-controlled ‘Wikipedia’ still follows this racist convention). The ‘Boxers’ were comprised of a popular folk movement that spanned North China – but which also had Southern Chinese sympathies. It was a popular ‘anti-foreign’ movement premised upon a highly spiritualised Chinese martial arts movement which immediately empowered its adherence with martial abilities – rather than relying on the more traditional years of practice to become efficient. As a spiritual movement it was anti-Christian – and as a physical movement it was anti-imperialist. The aggressive missionaries of the Christian Churches were demolishing Buddhist and Daoist temples and building Churches on their ruins. These Christians were then buying all the rice in the area and only giving it out to those Chinese who ‘converted’ to Christianity! This policy continued despite it causing widespread famine throughout the Christian dominated areas. Wherever the local people rose-up to stop this Christian invasion – the Western Authorities would unleash their military on the Chinese population in support of the missionaries. These ‘Righteous Harmonious Boxers (義和拳 - Yi He Quan) flocked to the anti-imperialist banner in their tens of thousands and in the early days of the uprising – inflicted serious defeats upon the Western and Japanese forces! When they were finally defeated, the Western Authorities (and their Christian missionaries) insisted that tens of thousands of men who joined the Boxer movement – or who were suspected of joining the Boxer movement – were publicly ‘beheaded’ whilst these executions were viewed by attending Western and Japanese audiences as a form of cultural entertainment! Many of these executions were photographed at the insistence of the Western Witnesses – with many such pictures subsequently hung in local Churches as a warning to the Chinese population about what will happen if they resist the spread of Christianity in China! Contrary to the hideously racist 1963 Hollywood film ‘55 Days in Peking’ - it was the Czarist Russians who led the eight allied nations in the rape and pillage of China. During the US contrived Cold War, however, the Soviet Union was ‘written-out’ of history and the British and Americans falsely portrayed as the main protagonists. In fact, the British only possessed a small number of soldiers who were mostly ‘Indian’, and not the ‘White’ soldiers portrayed in the film. As the White British officers did not ‘trust’ their Indian soldiers, they kept ‘stopping’ on the advance into Beijing and ordering their men to be arbitrarily ‘drilled’ as a means to ensure their continued compliance with the raping and killing of another ‘non-White’ people! Despite this misrepresentation, all the allied troops committed tremendous destruction of people and property in China! After the Qing Authorities surrendered in 1900 – the allied forces killed an estimated 50,000 innocent Chinese men, women and children in and around the Beijing area! The rape of women and girls was also extended to include men and boys! After committing these atrocities and robbing the Chinese of all valuables – the Western and Japanese allies then had the nerve to accuse the Chinese people of ‘War Crimes’! ACW (30.11.2021)
The 37th year of the traditional lunar calendar of China (in the continuously repeating-cycle of 60-years of earthly branches and divine-sky stems) is termed ‘Gengzhi’ (庚子) and typically represents the year of the rat. Within traditional Chinese astrological thinking, this year is associated with disaster and calamity. In 1840, the year of Gengzi, Great Britain launched the First Opium War and the process of China beginning to lose its status as an independent, sovereign nation began. In 1900, the year of the Geng Zi, the Eight-Power Allied Forces launched a war of aggression against China, and the Chinese nation fell into a situation where it was at the mercy of others following the defeat of the Chinese Imperial Army and the volunteer ‘Boxer’ Armies of spiritually empowered peasantry. At this darkest hour, the curtain was mercilessly brought-down on the era of Classical China, with the blood of the setting sun soaking the city of Beijing. Many Westerners at the time saw all this with their own eyes. After a murderous outpouring of arrogance, ecstasy, and pity, these historically altering emotions finally returned to the normality of rational thinking. Although China is both ‘liberated’ and fully restored to its rightful ‘sovereign’ status, the history books of these terrible times can be accessed afresh, and the Western eye-witness accounts objectively and critically examined.
The commander-in-chief of the Eight-Power Allied Forces - the German Field Marshal Alfred von Waldersee - said at the beginning of the ‘Discussion on the Partition of China" in "The Notes on the Boxers’: (A ‘Boxer’ is a peasant volunteer member of the ‘义和团’ [YiHeTuan] - ‘Righteous Harmonious Regiment’ empowered by folk martial arts). “In terms of the weakness of the military equipment, the exhaustion of financial resources, and the chaos of the political situation, it is a rare once in a thousand years opportunity for the implementation of the division of China." (Note: "Waldersee's Boxer Rebellion Notes" section is translated from "Waldersee's Memoirs", Wang Guangqi (王光祈) Translated, published by Zhonghua Book Company in 1928.)
On May 31st, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces sent troops into Beijing "On the afternoon of May 28th, the diplomatic mission held a meeting again, decided to request troops to be sent to Beijing, and informed the Prime Minister's office." "On May 29th, when the mission asked the Prime Minister's Personal Secretary to allow troops to guard the embassy, it was rejected. They said that allowing foreign troops to enter Beijing would damage the reputation of the imperial court and the divine kingdom and anger the people. Later they gave in." "On May 31st, the first batch of coalition forces drove from Tianjin to Beijing by forcibly requisitioned trains." "The strange thing is that Dong Fuxiang's (董福祥) Muslim soldiers retreated from the station when they saw the train on the city wall of Beijing. The train arrived at 8 o'clock in the evening. When arriving at Yutingmen, the city gate opened and 337 coalition officers and soldiers successfully reached the embassy area. Three days later, another group including 52 German sailors and 37 Austrian sailors moved into Beijing without hindrance. At this time, the embassy area had a total of 426 soldiers." ([Italian] Adriano Madaro, "Beijing in 1900", based on the diary of the Marquis Giuseppe Salvago Laghi, Italian Minister Plenipotentiary to China from 1899 to 1901, Translated by Xiang Jiagu (项佳谷), published by Oriental Publishing House in 2006.) "The ministers demanded that the Marine Corps be sent to defend the embassy." "On May 29th, the Marine Corps composed of 72 sailors sent from the six ships reached Beijing on the 31st." "The soldiers predicted that they would take Beijing soon, and said that if they receive an order, they will go to conquer Manchuria and the whole of China.” ([Russian] "New Frontier" reporter Dmitry Yancivitsky "The Eyewitnesses of the Eight-Power Allied Forces", the book was originally titled " Inside and Outside the Stagnant Chinese City Wall" is a battlefield diary, translated by Xu Chongxin (许崇信) and others, published by Fujian People's Publishing House in 1983.)
On June 10th, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing for the first time "On June 1st, the commander of the British Far East Fleet, Sir Edward Seymour, called from Dagu, the British Minister to China, Sir Claude Dunal, and assured him that the commander has 17 warships under his command and his military power will not be reduced by the year 1860." "On June 4th, the ministers of all countries unanimously requested the governments of all countries to order the warships moored in Dagu to take action." "On June 10th, 2129 officers and soldiers of the Eight-Nation Coalition set off from Tianjin Station. The coalition commander was Seymour. He once served in the British-French coalition as a junior navy officer. This unit had occupied Dagu and invaded 40 years ago. After passing through the city of Beijing, they razed the Old Summer Palace to the ground. Therefore, it can be said that he is a veteran of dealing with China." ([Italian] Madarao "Beijing in 1900") "A total of three trains departed this day, carrying 915 British, 450 Germans, 313 Russians, 158 French, 100 Americans, 52 Japanese, 40 Italians and 25 Austrians. This support army is led by Seymour." "The support army set off very hastily. The marines did not bring any luggage, but only two or three days of food, each of which was given 200 to 250 bullets." "June 11th. The fourth additional train was dispatched today. The second team of 212 Russian sailors departed. At the Zailuo station, they caught up with the Seymour troops." "I got news today that Seymour and his reinforcements didn’t even finish half of the journey, and it took a lot of effort to reach the Luofa station. The railway was destroyed everywhere, and the station was burned. The closer you get to Beijing, the more damaged the road." "June 12th. While building the road, the coalition forces moved forward slowly and finally arrived at Langfang Station." "June 14th. The troops arrived three and a half miles from Langfang Station. From then on, the railway was completely destroyed. There were no traces of the rails and sleepers. They were all pried out, burned or thrown away. The railway embankment where you can see has become a road." "June 15th. Luofa Station was surrounded by numerous regiments." "On June 16th. Seymour led the British Marines to retreat to Luofa. The other coalition forces stayed in Langfang." "June 17th. For the first time from Beijing, there was a Chinese official army carrying large and small flags. The one who appeared near Langfang was probably the forward of the troops led by Admiral Dong Fuxiang."
On June 18th-28th, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces were defeated and returned to Tianjin "On June 18th. The Seymour Expeditionary Army fought a tough battle with the Chinese officers for the first time. At 11 noon, the battle began. At 1 noon, the battle ended. The Russian 12th Regiment suffered the heaviest loss." "Seymour summoned the commanders of various countries and announced to them the decision to withdraw, because this is the only wise decision under the current conditions." "That night, the coalition forces began to retreat." "June 19th. The coalition forces continued their general retreat along the railway line. The closer they were to Tianjin, the more damaged the road was. It was impossible to retreat from the railway. So, they had to abandon the train, carry the wounded members, and retreat on foot. Everyone. Unanimously, it is impossible to walk with the Wounded, so he must retreat from the White River by barge." "June 21st. The Boxers followed the landing team in droves, not afraid of foreign guns or foreign cannon. The canned food was quickly eaten up, so they had to eat whatever God gave them: like the thrown rice, Pigs, calves and other animals that can be caught running around." "June 22nd. This is a very difficult day. The food is going to be eaten, and horses and mules are destined to be slaughtered and eaten." "June 23rd. The Marine Corps had to drop the barge, carry the wounded soldiers, and retreat to Tianjin under the cover of the nearest groves and mounds. The Chinese army that had previously chased the Marine Corps and the Chinese army that had retreated from Tianjin together, fired fiercely at the approaching Marines. The Marines’ situation is extremely critical." "June 24th. I received a letter from Seymour in Tianjin saying that he was surrounded by Chinese in the Xigu Arsenal three miles away from Tianjin. The letter was sent by a Chinese Christian." "Rescue troops ( 2000 people) set off at night and was led by the Chinese who led Seymour. The next day, they met at nine o'clock in the morning." "June 25th. The coalition has been transporting wounded soldiers all day and sending them to the opposite side of Baihe." "At three o'clock on the night of June 26th. The joint force returned to Tianjin smoothly. The Russian army lined up in front of the barracks shouting "Ula", welcoming the brave Seymour Expeditionary Army and his sad army carrying 238 wounded soldiers. Long stretcher team." ([Russian] Jancivitsky "The Eyewitnesses of the Eight-Power Allied Forces") "On July 1st. In Beijing, no one heard about the Seymour expedition. However, European newspapers published reports about Seymour, including his expedition diary, which recorded the number of casualties: dead 62 people injured 228 people.” ([Italian] Madara, "Beijing in 1900")
On June 17th, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded and occupied the Dagu Fort "The four forts in Dagu extend three versts from south to north along the coastline. The forts are equipped with a powerful battery of 240 guns of different models and calibres, 54 of which are Armstrong's latest cannons." "At the last morning joint meeting on June 16, the admirals of the navy decided to submit an ultimatum to Zhili Governor Yulu and Dagu Fortress Admiral Luo Rongguang, requesting the fort to be handed over before 2 a.m. by the Chinese army. If the fort is not evacuated by then, the coalition forces will be forced to use force to capture." "The ultimatum will be handed over to Luoshoutai by the torpedo captain, Lieutenant Bach Metyev. At the same time, Navy Warrant Officer Shramchenko will be sent to Tianjin to deliver the ultimatum to Governor Yulu." "Taiwan Admiral Luo Rongguang received a telegram: No matter what happens, the Dagu Fort shall not be handed over to foreigners." "At one o'clock in the morning on the 17th, there was a flash of fire on the new turrets. There was a roar of artillery, and the shells rumbled over the 'Kiriyak'. The fire from the various turrets burst out. One round of shells continued to pass over the warship." "A boiler on the British warship "Battle" was destroyed by a Chinese five-inch shell." "Seventeen grenades fell on the German warship 'Iltis' and all of the upper deck of the ship was destroyed. Captain Landz was hit by 25 shrapnel and wood chips. He was seriously injured and saw off one leg. This was the first time that the Germans personally tasted the excellent effects of German grenades fired from Krupp cannons. A German officer and 7 soldiers were killed and 17 were injured." "A grenade exploded on the French warship "Leon" and caused a fire. One person on the ship was killed and 46 others were injured." "A Chinese grenade hit the Russian warship 'Kiriyak' ammunition depot and caused an explosion. A total of 8 people were killed and 48 people were injured on the ship." "At three o'clock in the morning, the first Chinese shell hit the hull of the Russian warship 'Korean.' The restaurant above the shell magazine burned. 2 officers, 9 sailors and 20 were injured on the ship." "At 3:30 in the morning, given that the gunboats did not cause any damage to the battery, and also expected that it would not be possible to take the Northwest Battery as an offensive target, the (Marine Corps) commanders decided to retreat." "The Chinese noticed that the Marines were heading for the fort, and they immediately fired at them with guns." "Fight against their own unshakable Japanese feud with fierce gunfire. The Japanese commander Hattori Sasa ran to the gate just a few steps away, was suddenly shot dead and fell down." "At 5:30 in the morning, when the coalition forces saw the British flag on the northwest fort, the cheers of 'Ula' resounded through all the warships like thunder." "After the Marines occupied the northwest fort, they rushed to attack the north fort. The Chinese were in a mess, abandoning the fort and fleeing. The fort was immediately occupied by the coalition forces." "At six o'clock in the morning, all the warships pulled their anchors and set sail down the river in order to bombard the South Fort and the New Fort." "At 6:30 in the morning, the Russian flag was placed on the South Fort, the German and Austrian flags were placed on the New Fort, the Japanese flag was placed on the North Fort, and the British and Italian flags were placed on the Northwest Fort." "Luo Shoutai (罗守台) tried his best to defend the fort entrusted to him. Near the cannons of all the captured forts, brave defenders with broken hands, feet, and heads were found. Chinese infantry and artillery were lying everywhere along the parapet." "Luo Shoutai saw that he was powerless, and at the same time he was unwilling to leave the fortress entrusted to him alive, and according to the duties of the Chinese military attache, he died in pain after swallowing gold." ([Russian] Jancivitsky "The Eyewitnesses of the Eight-Power Allied Forces")
On June 19th, 1900, the Qing government decided to declare war "June 19. The news of the occupation of the Dagu Fort angered the Qing court. After a heatedly debated meeting, the Prime Minister’s Yamen was ordered to submit an ultimatum to the ministers of various countries in China. This is very shocking. No one in the embassy area expected this, and no one knew that Tianjin was besieged and Dagu Fort was occupied." "In the afternoon, 12 large red envelopes were delivered by the Prime Minister’s national affairs office to the ministers of the 11 countries and Sir Robert Hurd, the General Taxation Department of the Imperial Customs. The letter is an ultimatum. The 12 letters clearly marked the time limit: 4 pm. At the same time the next day, the embassy staff must be evacuated, and all their guests will be evacuated to Tianjin. The ultimatum is succinctly written, mentioning the coalition’s ultimatum and the occupation of the fort: ‘I was surprised to learn that the fort was occupied. This is actually a deliberate destruction of peace by Western countries and is an enemy of China’s Qing Dynasty. The Boxers disturbed the capital, The people are in turmoil. Your Excellencies, your family, and the embassy are in dire straits. The Qing court is in a difficult situation and it is difficult to provide effective protection. In view of this, this Prime Minister’s Personal Secretary hereby invites you to leave Beijing as soon as possible and be escorted by the embassy guard to Tianjin to avoid disasters. The embassy guard must be effectively restrained. ’Everything must be carried out under the escort of court guards." "The ministers of various countries held an emergency meeting in the Spanish embassy because the Spanish minister Ge Luogan is the head of the mission. Everyone's first reaction was to condemn the stupid actions of the soldiers. The decision to submit an ultimatum to the Chinese government should be made by diplomats, not soldiers. "The proposal of the Marquis of Raj was adopted, and it was considered the most appropriate plan. ‘The meeting decided to give the following reply based on my suggestion: Once Commander Seymour arrives in Beijing, we will immediately withdraw. If the court provides convenience, they can arrive at the capital within two days. The reply also stated that it was difficult to evacuate within 24 hours due to the inability to find enough means of transportation. With the insistence of the French Minister, the requirements of the Dagu Fort were extremely difficult to understand. "" "This is the testimony of the Italian Minister-it has never been mentioned by historians who have studied the Boxer Movement and the embassy besieged. "([Italian] Madara "Beijing in 1900")
"From June 16th, the Empress Dowager Cixi (慈禧) held an imperial meeting for four consecutive days. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon on the 19th, Cixi unexpectedly decided to declare war on all countries. "" Yun Yuding (恽毓鼎), who participated in the Imperial Conference, recorded the decision at that time in the "Chongling [崇陵] Biography": The Queen Mother declared: ‘Four notes for foreigners: 1. Specify a place for the emperor of China to live; 2. Collect money on his behalf, 3. Collect food on his behalf; and 4. Control the world's military power on his behalf. “Today’s provocation is open to others, and the country is dead at the present time. If I give it up, I will die without a face. Wait for death, and die in a war, nothing is heavier!” A number of ministers present were not keen to follow her instructions but the Empress Dowager Cixi added: “I have no choice but to declare war on the Western aggressors as they are destroying the country and killing the people!” “It was said that the Empress Dowager Cixi represented three-hundred years of eminent ancestry and was of the opinion that her personal history grants her the power to make such heavy decisions. She said that no single person was to blame for the current situation and that she would work hard to rectify the situation.” ([中] Jin Chong 金冲] and "The Outline of Chinese History in the 20th Century") "Over the next night and day, the Boxer's announcement was posted on the city wall: "Divine Spirit Empowers the Boxers! The Foreign Devils are Navigating the Central Plains; Teach these Barbarians a Lesson! Be Confident! When They Disrespect the Buddhas and Gods They Forget Their Own Ancestors." The Boxers attacked the foreigners, destroyed their railways and over-ran their legations! Joining with the Chinese Imperial Army great defeats were inflicted upon the foreigners! The Boxers practiced a spiritualised martial art that empowered the peasantry and enabled them to confront the advanced and highly dangerous war technology of the foreigners. The Boxers, although xenophobic and patriotic, they were highly effective as a fighting force. "The announcement was exciting and powerful, reminding people of the majesty of the Chinese Empire, which was lost in the last hundred years of the Qing Dynasty. "([Italian] Madara "Beijing in 1900") "On June 21st, four days after Dagu conquered, Beijing issued a decree: ‘The ancestors support the descendants, just as the Divine-Essence permeates reality. Everyone is loyal and indignant, as nothing in the past justifies the present. Within all the temples our cries are heard, and Masters take Disciples and teach them the ancient secrets! United as one people, we can confront this menace! If we are daring, the enemy can be defeated! I have summoned ministers and workers for several days to enquire about the same. From the provinces of Jinji and Shandong the loyal volunteers have been streaming in in their tens of thousands! Indeed, in one day over a hundred thousand of ‘Boxers’ spontaneously gathered! Even male youths are presenting themselves to defend the realm! The Boxers fights fraud and conspiracy, The Boxers relies upon their own inner strength, and upon a pure heart and mind! For the Boxer - ‘loyalty’ to the realm serves as the only ‘armour’ they carry! This secret martial system is entered through ritual, righteousness and a ‘mark’ made upon a sacred scroll. Once so empowered, these divine-soldiers are willing to expose themselves to every danger without fear, and to die in their multitudes for the well-being and survival of the realm! As there are over four-hundred million people living throughout China, this nation possesses the strength to confront the enemy until final victory! This resistance burns brightly like a fiercely bright flame!” The decree concluded: “All those who have made meritorious service in combat and those who donate military pay, all will be rewarded separately." ([Russian] Jancivitsky "The Eight Kingdoms Sightings of the Allied Forces)
The mystery of the shooting of the German minister – who was killed on June 20th, 1900. "On June 13th, a Boxer personally appeared in the embassy area in a carriage. He showed off his broadsword and arrogantly wiped it on his leather boots. The German minister, Baron von Klind, walked over and attacked him with his cane. The Boxer escaped, but there was a 13-year-old boy on the carriage. Klind beat the boy severely and dragged the boy covered in blood into the German embassy and imprisoned him. This incident angered the Boxers, and they poured into the capital (at night) through the ‘Gate of Manifest Virtue’! Fires blazed everywhere in Beijing... There is the shout of ‘kill!’ everywhere. kill!" "On June 16th, in London, the local newspapers (Note: relaying the headline taken from the English-owned "North China Daily News") published the shocking news: German Minister Baron Klind has been killed by the Boxers! The European and American governments were panicked. The strange thing is that this news was not True, Baron Klind was still alive at the time. He was killed, but that was four days later." "On June 17th, news of the destruction of the embassy and the killing of Klind was published in the international press." "On the morning of June 20th, the ministers of various countries met at 8 o'clock in the morning. At the meeting, it was decided to ask the Manchu and Qing government to contact the military commanders of various countries in Tianjin. Undoubtedly, they wanted to return the Dagu Fort to China in exchange for the Manchu Qing government to agree to the envoys of various countries to stay in Beijing, waiting for the arrival of the Seymour Expeditionary Army. ...But the German minister, as usual, did not want to sing the same tune as everyone else. The meeting ended in vain, and everyone returned to their embassy to wait for news. After the meeting, Klind changed his mind, or he never wanted to send his translator (the Chinese secretary of the embassy - Ke Shida [柯士达]) to inquire about the news alone, and so he ordered two sedan chairs, one for him and one for Ke Shida, and headed to the Prime Minister's Office. Two uniformed attendants rode out in front of him. "([Italian] Madara "Beijing in 1900") The first (eye-witness) account is the Ke Shida narrative. When the sedan-chair traversed the main street heading toward the Gate of Manifest Virtue – it gently collided with a cart carrying Manchu Cavalry as it turned-out of a West-facing side-street (after these troops had delivered a number of culprits to the nearby house of arrest). Then, a high-ranking ‘Chinese’ soldier standing nearby and dressed in a formal military uniform fastened with big buttons, (and wearing a Han nationality hat decorated with blue-feathers), raised the gun he was carrying and aimed at the Western occupant of the sedan-chair. As he was less than one meter from the window of the sedan-chair, he easily shot the (German) minister in the head. The men carrying the chair immediately dropped their load and fled for safety – whilst the body of the now dead German minister was lying sprawled half in and half out of the chair. He appeared to have been killed instantly by the single shot. The second version is from the Diary of Beijingers. A German newspaper published in Shanghai published the Diary of a Beijinger on August 3rd. Klind and his guards were on their way to the Prime Minister’s Office to meet his Personal Secretary. Near the Belgian Embassy, one of his attendants had a pistol which fired by accident. The European soldiers in the embassy believed that the gun was fired from the Chinese army next to them, so they fired. The Chinese shot back, and Klind was shot and killed in the exchange. The third version is in the form of a note written by the Prime Minister's office. According to the note, the two Germans rode in the sedan chair and shot passers-by near the Personal Secretary, so the Chinese group returned fire and killed one of them. The fourth version is that this event was an organized and premeditated murder. One thing is still inexplicable. Why did the British newspaper report the killing of Klind four days before it happened? One possibility is that the article was fabricated out of nothing and should not have been published at all; There is also a possibility that this news was sent back secretly from Beijing via telegram very early (as the murder was pre-planned), and it was prepared to report the news on a certain (future) day, but was published too early by mistake. Some people think that Klind should have been killed in the conflict between the 14th-16th. The killing of Klind coincided with the plan of the great powers to divide China, whilst China was already on the brink of collapse. "On the last day of 1900, En Hai (恩海), the Qing soldier who killed Klind, was executed. He confessed to the facts of his crime. At the time of the execution, the German generals Trotta, Lesser and many German officers and soldiers were present. When the judge read the death sentence, En Hai laughed and said to the crowd watching: ‘I’m worthy of death! His head, this creepy trophy was sent to Germany." ([Italian] Madarao "Beijing in 1900") "At 9 o'clock on June 27th, the coalition forces attacked the Tianjin East Manufacturing Bureau which fell at 1:30 pm. The coalition forces killed 11 soldiers and wounded 75 people." "Our spoils are worth more than 10 million rubbles, and there are countless inside. A large arsenal of shells, bullets, gunpowder and various workshops." "In the entire Zhili war, this is our best trophy." "July 14th. Tianjin fell. The Eight-Power Allied Forces amounted to more than 10,000, the Qing Army defended with about 15,000, and the Boxer Regiment 20,000 to 30,000." "The coalition had 882 casualties, including 38 officers." "There are traces of European shelling everywhere. The houses of Chinese civilians were pierced by circular shells, and the roofs and walls were all pierced. Along the way, I encountered people killed by shell fragments and bullets. The corpses of the Chinese poor. No one came to collect the corpses, only flies, dogs and pigs came to patronize them." "Now, brutal and insatiable robbery has begun in the city. This is not surprising. Not only are the houses and properties abandoned by Chinese businessmen, officials and other citizens who rushed to escape, but even the houses where the owners still live! There are no human rights granted to the subhuman Chinese. There is a strange medieval view that everything can be done to the Chinese. They are treated as lowly beasts, yes, and they should be abused, ravaged, and even allowed to be Killed with impunity." "On July 18th, the Eight-Power Allied Forces established the Tianjin Provisional-Tianjin Metropolitan Government Office. The Metropolitan Government Office has the right to issue necessary decrees, organise police power, and inflict judicial power." "It existed for two full years, until 1902. Not revoked until the summer of that year." ([Russian] Jancivitsky "Eight-Power Allied Forces Witnesses") On August 3rd, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing again "After the failed expedition of Seymour’s troops to Beijing, the military leaders in Tianjin gathered 25,000 people in Dagu at the end of July. They divided the large number of coalition forces into two columns and marched towards Beijing at the same time: Japanese, British, and American troops. On the right bank of the North River, Russian, French, German, and Italian troops marched into Beijing along the left bank of the North River.” ([Italian] Madaro "Beijing in 1900")
On August 3, the Russian army, in coordination with the coalition forces of various countries, set off in the direction of the Chinese military position at Beicang, taking the first step towards Beijing. On the 4th, Beicang fell. 15,000 coalition forces attacked Beicang, including 6,500 Japanese soldiers. The occupation of Beicang was mainly attributed to the Japanese soldiers. The Japanese army launched an early attack at night and broke into the centre of the position using hand-to-hand combat. One Japanese officer was killed, 41 soldiers were killed, 8 people were missing, 12 officers were wounded, whilst 234 Chinese soldiers were killed. On the 5th, Yangcun fell. Since the coalition forces captured Yangcun, a water, land, and railway hub has been established between Tianjin, Tongzhou, and Beijing. From the evening of the 5th to the morning of the 7th, the coalition forces rested. The military conference decided: "Tracking and pursuing the Chinese soldiers, and denying them the possibility of gathering forces for a counter-attack." On the 7th, 13,500 coalition forces continued to march towards Beijing. And made camp in Nancai Village. "They eat delicious, nutritious cans and drink water from many wells along the road. The water is not yet causing diseases whilst fatigue, and heat stroke have not yet occurred. All officers are healthy." "The road we are walking is the same road that the British and French forces led by General Grant and General Montauban took 40 years ago in early September 1860." On the 8th, we arrived in Xiwu Village, only 50 miles from Beijing. On the 9th, we camped in Matou Village. On the 10th, Zhangjiawan was only 40 miles away from Beijing. On the 11th, we occupied Tongzhou. There are only 20 miles from Beijing. "There is no counterattack everywhere. All the local forces and officials have all escaped." "Most of the residents, about no less than 100,000, still stay in the city. They stay behind closed doors in their homes or small shops." On this day, Major General Vasilevsky, Chief of Staff of the Russian Command, personally surveyed the only way to Beijing. At four o'clock in the afternoon, "the reconnaissance team passed the famous Bali Bridge. In the summer of 1860, 40,000 Chinese troops were defeated by 600 French troops and British artillery and fled." "Many Chinese were sitting on the grass beside the road. Under the shed, drinking tea and chatting, watching the full moon. Moonlight is spreading like silver hairs over their villages, surrounded by fresh cornfields and neat poplar trees. To them, it seems that there is no war, and there is no such thing as what has come. These 13,000 enemy troops." From 12th to 13th, the coalition rested. 1:40 am on the 14th. After the Russian army killed 61 guarding Chinese troops, "General Vasilevsky immediately ordered two guns to be deployed and placed fifteen steps away in front of the city gate." "General Vasilevsky ordered an attack on the city gate (East Gate). This is the first Russian attack on Beijing." At two o'clock in the night, the city gate was breached. General Vasilevsky entered the city gate boldly. "The gate of Beijing collapsed under Russian artillery fire. The Chinese sentries abandoned the arrow tower on the gate, and the Russian flag was raised on it. This is a sign of victory and reconciliation. This is the first city wall in Imperial Beijing. Flags flying above." "Never an enemy shell has ever damaged the castle of Beijing.... In 1900, Russian shells hit the gates of Beijing for the first time. I hope this will be the last time.... This time is also like this. Just like 40 years ago, the Chinese emperor, empress dowager, court officials, princes, ministers of military and machinery, and all officials hurriedly fled from Beijing overnight, and then the residents of the city also fled. China who fought in vain to defend the capital – its defeated army has retreated through the West Gate of Beijing day and night, fleeing westward one unit after another." At ten o'clock in the morning, the Japanese army broke through the Qihua Gate. At eleven, American troops entered the city. "The British soldiers were wiser. They drilled under the wall along the dry river, and entered the outer city of Beijing at one o'clock in the afternoon. Then they passed through the empty city without fighting, and drilled under the inner-city wall and appeared in front of the British Embassy fortifications at 2 pm. The Indian soldiers were the first to clear the enemy positions and lift the siege.” At about two o'clock in the afternoon, the Qing soldiers surrendered and Beijing fell. The Russian army killed 28 people and injured 106 people. The Japanese army killed 30 people and injured 120 people. The U.S. Army wounded 20 people. Two Indian soldiers were injured in the embassy yard. ([Russian] Jancivitsky "Eight-Power Allied Forces Witnesses")
On August 15th, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded and occupied Beijing "Beijing fell into the hands of the Eight-Power Allied Forces. After experiencing the serious incident of the embassy and temple being besieged, it is impossible to hope that the foreign occupying forces will be benevolent. On August 15th, someone decided to humiliate the national pride of the Chinese people. It was the American General Schaeffer. He grew up in the western United States where he was hunting and killing Indians, so he had a harder heart. His goal was to conquer the Forbidden City and enter. He used cannon to blow up the strong gates of the Forbidden City.” ([意] Mada Luo "Beijing in 1900") "On August 15th, the Americans started shelling the palace in the imperial city, but due to the intervention of General Linevich and the envoy, the shelling soon stopped. There were nearly 20 casualties. On that day, the joint commander of the coalition forces and the envoy had a joint seat. At the meeting, a resolution was passed: No foreign troops can enter the palace. All the outer gates leading to the palace are guarded by international guards.” ([Russian] Jancivitsky "Eight-Power Allied Forces Witnesses") "The Qing imperial family has fled Beijing. The generals of the Eight-Power Allied Forces first divided the troops into four parts according to the most appropriate ratio, and then came to divide Beijing. The northern part of the inner city is all owned by the Japanese, and the Russians are divided into the southeast corner, and one point to the west. The French, a piece next to the British, and a little to the south for the Americans. The outer city is divided between the Americans and the British. The Americans set up their headquarters in Xiannongtan, and the British headquarters in Temple of Heaven. When the Germans arrived later, they were given the eastern part of the inner city, a large part of the western outer city, and other strategic locations. Italy was finally given a small part in the middle area, with their headquarters in the northwest corner.” ([Italian] Madaro "Beijing in 1900") The French newspaper at the time made this record: “A soldier who returned to China described: We were ordered to do whatever we wanted in the city for three days, kill and kill if we wanted, and take if we wanted, and we actually robbed it for eight days. The Christian priests acted as our guides.” “Allied forces. After the occupation of Beijing, the army was allowed to rob publicly for three days (August 16th to August 18th), followed by private looting. The material losses suffered by the residents of Beijing were very large, but the detailed numbers are no longer easy to investigate. Now, these countries blame one other for this robbery, but the fact that all countries have robbed together is well-known." "Therefore, the detailed numbers of China's damage and robbery will never be able to be found out, but the number must be extremely significant." ([Germany] Wadsey "Boxer Rebellion Notes")
"There is a saying in ancient China: 'The emperor humiliates his officials by ordering their deaths, that is, once the emperor suffers humiliation, his officials should be martyred. The emperor had to leave the capital due to foreign invasions. This is a sudden departure from Beijing. The officials who were loyal to the emperor could not bear such a shame. Such officials were not worthy to live, and no longer wanted to live. Therefore, on the night when Beijing was occupied, many ministers and generals served opium or swallowed gold. They died in pain. They also poisoned their wives, children and servants to prevent the family from surviving. Some threw women and children into the well and drowned them before committing suicide by themselves.” ([Russian] Jancivitsky "Eight Nations Allied Forces Witnesses") "In 1900, Beijing was ransacked by civilized coalition forces during a month of rampage. Because of the deep-rooted contempt for the Chinese by the alien forces and the lack of unified jurisdiction over the coalition forces of various countries, and despite the efforts of some commanders, however, no matter what, the looting of the imperial capital (and the atrocities against the residents) could not be stopped." "Half of the great capital of the emperor has been destroyed and burned, it has been ravaged so disgustingly, almost everything is dead. On both sides of the Embassy Street. There are piles of ruins, piles of stones, ashes, rubbish and dirt everywhere. The bodies of the Chinese are scattered on the road in heaps and as individuals." "The French soldiers burned the houses and shops around the Beitang. Charred corpses are exposed as piles of ruins, rubble and ashes. Chinese people who were shot and stabbed to death formed piles of corpses on the street. Not only Chinese soldiers were killed, but also innocent Chinese citizens. All Western forces perpetrated in this crime.” ([Russian] Jancivitsky "The Eyewitnesses of the Eight-Power Allied Forces")
"The trade here is extremely prosperous. Merchants from all over the world, especially those from the United States, have already come here to do business and reap huge profits. The most sold items are bronze, porcelain of various generations, and jade. Next are silk goods, embroidered goods, leather goods, copper bottles, red lacquer items, etc. As for gold and silver items, they are rare. The most regrettable thing is that many valuable objects have been destroyed, including priceless wood carvings." ([Germany] Wadsey "Boxer Rebellion Notes") The Italian minister, Marquis Laghi, wrote in his diary: "Beijing is occupied. The barbaric and cruel behaviour has begun.... I went there and saw children with their heads split and women stripped naked and murdered. Many raped first. I wish I could deny all of this, but I have to admit that it is all true." ([Italian] Madara, "Beijing in 1900") On August 28th, 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces Parade in the Forbidden City. "On August 19th, the generals and the diplomatic missions decided to occupy Beijing strategically. Everyone agreed that the Forbidden City should not be touched, but the Chinese must be given a strong warning. Therefore, a symbolic military parade must be held in the Forbidden City. And the parade is equivalent to a kind of spiritual occupation, and then the Forbidden City will be closed and guarded, waiting for the return of the royal family.” ([Italian] Madara "Beijing in 1900") "August 28th was exactly two weeks after the conquering of Beijing. On this memorable day, a historic event occurred in Beijing, China, which marked the fall of the Imperial Capital. On this day, the coalition forces held a grand parade through the palace." "At the preparatory meeting attended by the commanders of the coalition forces of various countries, it was decided to hold a military parade of all natiions: the leader was the Russian army that first invaded Beijing, followed by Japan, Britain, the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, etc. All National Forces." "The number of troops is as follows: 800 Russian soldiers, 800 Japanese soldiers, 400 British soldiers, 400 Indian soldiers, 400 American soldiers, 200 French soldiers, 200 German soldiers, 60 Italian soldiers, and 60 Austrian soldiers. (Note: 2920 in total)” "Before 7:30 in the morning, the weather was exceptionally fine, and the troops gathered in the palace courtyard inside the Qian Qing Gate (of ‘Divine Purity’), the first gate of the imperial city." "All coalition forces of various countries are ready to be reviewed." "At 7:30, the commander of the Russian Army’s Zhili forces, Lieutenant General Linevich, accompanied the Russian minister Mr. Giles, Mr. Popov, the consul general, and a large number of attachés including headquarters officials, military reporters, embassy staff, and guards. Came to the assembly place under the white banner of the army commander." "Russian troops raised their guns and saluted. Our military band played a welcome song. General Linevich inspected the troops with the highest rank. After the general raised his hands to the Russian troops who warmly chanted their routine congratulations, the tour began. Allied forces of various countries. At this time, a magnificent and unusual scene was presented." "In the forbidden walls and towers of the imperial city where not only foreigners but even Chinese can approach, in the ancient stone-paved courtyards that no ordinary people have ever visited, there are now lined with foreign rifles and sabres, The eight-nation allied troops with flags, trumpeters and military bands. They greeted Russian generals with cheers and music. This is the respect of the first troops from all countries to break through into Beijing." "At eight o'clock in the morning, General Linevich finished the military parade. Then he took his entourage into the palace. Behind the entourage, Russian troops and troops from other countries followed in with military bands and flags." "The sound of a British salute announces the beginning of the parade." "This spectacular parade of coalition forces is a vivid manifestation of today’s political situation in Asia. At the forefront is the great and powerful Russia. After it is the young Japan, which has leaped over the eastern countries, and behind Japan the third country is the United Kingdom, which was once strong in Asia and has now retreated behind Russia and Japan, followed by the United States, France, and Germany, which has emerged from East Asia with its military policy, and the rest of the countries are behind them." "At nine o'clock in the morning, the military parade is over." "The sacredness and inviolability of the imperial palace in the past two hundred years has been destroyed, the secret has been revealed, and the Forbidden City is no longer the Forbidden City." ([Russian] Jancivitsky "Eight-Power Allied Forces Witnesses") "On the morning of August 28th, a solemn ceremony was held in front of the south gate of the Forbidden City. All the personnel of the diplomatic mission, the generals and officers of the eight-nation coalition forces, and the representatives of the soldiers of each unit held their respective signs and symbols, a total of 2,300 people. Soldiers participated in the ceremony. The parade passed through Tiananmen, Meridian Gate, Hall of Supreme Harmony, and then Deshengmen to the north. The parade was orderly, not long, and careful, but they also knew that this was a desecration of Chinese cultural identity. The Holy Land will never be the same again.” ([Italian] Madara, "Beijing in 1900") The Italian minister, Marquis Laghi, was present at the time. He recalled: “When we got to the north of the palace, we found some diplomats’ wives waiting there. They wanted to watch the parade of the troops and at least have a look at the palace. I don’t know who allowed them in. But the beloved wives were in front of the husbands who could not refuse...Some small treasures in the palace were undoubtedly lost, and at the same time, the dignity and the solemnity of the whole ceremony was lost.... But the regulations have been violated, and the door was later reopened. It has been opened several times...In the living room of an American lady's house in Beijing, I saw some very delicately carved jade objects, which many people admired... They were historical relics that were kept for centuries in the emperor's living room." ([Italian] Madarao "Beijing in 1900")
On September 7th, 1900, military parade in the Imperial Palace of the Russian Army. The Russian army camped in the imperial city: partly in the tents around Meishan, partly in the palace houses. The luxurious "Summer Palace" is guarded by several companies of our army. On September 6th, Vice Admiral Alekseyev, commander-in-chief of the Russian army, arrived in Beijing in a troika. This is the first Russian troika to drive into Beijing. On September 7th, General Alekseyev inspected the Russian troops camping in the imperial palace. All of our troops who have conquered Beijing bravely put on clean white shirts, beaming tanned faces, and saw their commander-in-chief with vigour. The commander-in-chief paid tribute to all the troops one by one as he inspected the entire army. Then, the Lieutenant General stood in the middle of the entire army and delivered a loud speech full of patriotism. The speech commended the brave, courageous and tenacious spirit of the Russian army and thanked them for their dedication in marching and conquering Beijing. And hail long live for the honour of His Majesty and the holy family. The 4,000 Russian soldiers of His Majesty the Tsar honoured His Majesty the Emperor of Russia: it was the first to occupy Beijing. Their enthusiastic cheers and national anthem resounded throughout the imperial garden and palace for a long time. General Linevich received cheers as the commander responsible for the successes in the two vast theatres from Beijing to Fengtian. A celebration was held at the end of the military parade. ([Russian] Jancivitsky "Eight-Power Allied Forces Witnesses") On December 27th, 1900, New Year's Day, 1901, the military parade at Tiananmen Square in Wade West.
"On August 18th, 1900, the hostilities began on a larger scale. In Berlin, Germany publicly issued a speech when the Kaiser sent off the German Expeditionary Force: 'You should retaliate for unjust acts. The way of implication is mocking the sacredness of foreign envoys. If you encounter an enemy, don't be merciful and do not spare life. With the weapons in your hands, the Chinese will not dare to look at the Germans even after a thousand years. Let us open a permanent channel for civilization!'" ([Italian] Madarao "Beijing in 1900") On August 23rd, 1900, Wadsey led the German Expeditionary Force to China. "At 11:30 on September 21st, I arrived at Wusong Bay and was welcomed by the many warships moored there... In the French concession of Shanghai, the British General Creagh ordered the armies of various countries to gather and hold a grand event. Military salute... and the general asks Yu Shen (余深) to review the entire army the next day... If Yu goes to the military parade, he wears the Black Eagle Medal belt, and is master of the marshal’s command, followed by one of his majesty’s guards holding a handsome flag, and dozens of officers. There are also countless Indian cavalry with splendid costumes and brave appearances, and they disperse the crowded Chinese visiting. It is inevitable that there is a sense of stage acting. But Yu Shen knows that this kind of acting method is not for Asian residents. It should be there." ([Germany] Wadsey "Boxer Rebellion Notes")
"On September 25th, Wadesy landed (Tianjin)." "Wadesy established the highest headquarters in Tianjin, and then arrived in Beijing in mid-October to organize punitive crusades and occupation of Zhili Province. Germany. The emperor’s order is arbitrary and unquestionable: 'Let the Chinese never dare to look sideways at the Germans!'” ([Italian] Madarao's "Beijing in 1900") On October 9th, Vadsi wrote in his diary: “As for Asians, you can only exercise authority to move them. This belief will still be used as a guide for all future actions.” “Now Beijing, is cleaning up the former Winter Palace where the Chinese empress and emperor lived as the rest of the headquarters." On October 17th, Wadsey wrote in his diary: "I arrived in Beijing. Eleven minutes before noon, I took a horse to enter the gate of the southeast corner of Beijing. All the generals of the coalition troops stationed in Beijing are waiting there." When Yu Chu (余初) entered the first city gate, the German artillery team opened the Chinese cannon on the wall as a salute. The Japanese artillery team stood on the marble bridge outside the palace to pay tribute to Yu - when Yu entered the Winter Palace. The journey will take more than one hour. There are troops standing by the side along the way. All Europeans staying in Beijing are not present; that is, there are many Chinese people who come to see this drama. The rest of the journey enters the winter. The palace first passes through a bridge above the lotus pond (Beihai, Zhonghai). According to this route, it is especially pre-selected, so the formerly Europeans were not allowed to cross the bridge, so it is." ([德] Wadsey "Boxer Rebellion Notes") "On December 27th, Vardesi parade in front of Tiananmen Square." "Vardesi wears winter clothes, riding a high horse, posing for a photo with two German guards in front of Tiananmen Square." ([Italian] Madara" Beijing in 1900))
Today (New Year's Day in 1901) is the military parade of the British garrison, most of which is composed of Indian soldiers. Indian custom often celebrates the Queen’s birthday on this day. The (British) General Gaselee, on behalf of the (British) Queen’s grandson, went to hold a military parade, commanded the Union Jack raised during the salute, and chanted long live the Queen. It's something that has never happened since ancient times! It's really a lot of experience here. Under the command of a Prussian marshal, the British and Indian troops saluted and shouted Hep hep Hurrah! I dare not forget to thank the Queen. The military parade was excellent. During the period, the style of the military uniform and the flesh colour of the soldiers actually showed a resplendent image, with spectacle only visible in the Eastern Kingdom. The ride is on beautiful brown horse. "([Germany] Wadsey "Boxer Rebellion Notes") "On June 5th, Vardesi left China. To be sure, he left an unforgettable mark in 9 months. The newspaper wrote: China was calmed down. On July 29th, the Forbidden City was destroyed. Returned to the Chinese authorities." ([Italian] Madara, "Beijing in 1900")
On September 7th, 1901, the "Xin Chou [辛丑] Treaty" was formally signed "For this expedition, the emperor has the greatest hope for the development of our East Asian business. The emperor has also made Yu remember: to demand China's compensation to the highest limit, and must thoroughly implement the proposition. Because the emperor urgently needs this money to produce Battleships, so it is. Later I learned more that the emperor wanted to expand our rights in Shandong. In order to achieve this project, I hope to put it on Yantai." ([Germany] Wadesi "Bpxer Rebellion Notes") "On October 26th, 1900, the peace negotiations began. Li Hongzhang (李鸿章) was sitting next to Prince Qing (庆)." "Because Spanish Ambassador Ge Luogan was the head of the mission, the negotiations were held at the Spanish Embassy. The meeting was very lengthy and exhausting, everyone. Not wanting to lose face, but the Chinese must pay a high price for peace." ([Italian] Madarao "Beijing in 1900")
"On December 22nd, 1900, when the great powers proposed the outline of the peace talks, the Qing government in exile in Xi'an immediately issued a shining edict, announcing that the government's future foreign policy was to 'Preserve China's material resources and unite with the country's love', and brazenly added: 'To discuss the agreement today, not to compromise our sovereignty, not to cede our land, to recite the forgiveness of the nations for the ignorance of the violent protests. Thinking after the fact. A mixture of regret and indignation.'" ([中] Jin Chong and "Twentieth Century China" History Compendium) On January 3rd, 1901, "Mr. Yu and (German envoy) Mumm had a long talk about the amount of indemnity that China can pay. The ministers of various countries said that the maximum should not exceed 1.5 billion marks (about 750 million taels of silver). Yu advocates that the number of two billion marks (about 1 billion taels of silver) can be squeezed out. This amount had been expected as the total amount of indemnity proposed by the great powers in compensation for the Boxer Uprising." ([Germany] Wadsey's "Boxer Rebellion Notes") On September 7th, 1901, the "Final Protocol" (Note: Xin Chou Treaty) was formally signed: The core content of the first paragraph, is effectively dealing the murder of the German imperial Minister Baron Klind, the imperial Prince Zaifeng (载沣) was ordered to go to the German Emperor to express regret on behalf of the Qing Dynasty emperor and the country. Second, the Qing Dynasty built a monument for the minister of Klind. The core content of the second paragraph deals with the need to severely punish the Chinese-Qing ministers considered responsible for the anti-Western violence and resistance – terming this ‘resistance’ as ‘War Crimes’. This included Duanjun (端郡) - ‘second-rank-prince' - Wang Zaiyi (王载漪) and Fu Guogong (辅国公) - prince-knight-general – Zailan (载澜), both of whom were charged, tried, convicted and exiled (with their titles expunged). These two men fully supported the Boxer Uprising and called for the expulsion of all foreigners from China! They were exiled with generous pensions. Many other high-ranking Qing Court officials (and members of the royal family) decided to commit suicide due to the ‘shame’ associated with losing to the Western forces. This included such people as Prince Zhuang (庄亲王 - Zhuang Qin Wang) Zaixun (載勛), Zuo Du Yushi (左都御史) – High Official of the Metropolitan Procuratorate – Yingnian (英年), and Xingbu Shangshu (刑部尚书) - High Official of the Ministry of Criminal Prevention - Zhao Shuqiao (赵舒翘); Yuxian (毓贤), the governor of Shanxi, Qixiu (启秀) from the Ministry of Ritual, and Xu Chengyu (徐承煜) from the Ministry of Criminal Affairs, were all rehabilitated and directed to the correct path of righteousness behaviour (by denying the cause of the Boxers); the co-organizer of the Ministry of Scholars, Xu Tong (徐桐), the former governor of Sichuan, Li Bingheng (李秉衡), were already dead. Many officials who were suspected of collaborating with the Boxer Movement were dismissed from their posts. This included Xu Yongyi (徐用仪) the High Official of the War Department, Lishan (立山) the High Official of the Household Department, Xu Jingcheng (许景澄) the Secretary of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Cabinet Bachelor and the Minister of Ritual Department - Lianyuan (联元), and Qing Yuanchang (卿袁昶) of the Taichang [太常] Temple - the Restoration officer, etc. The admiral of Gansu Dong Fuyang (董福样) was dismissed from his post, although he deserved to be punished far worse. The second priority of the second paragraph was to suspend the civil and military examinations for five years in towns where the people of various countries were killed and abused. The core content of the third paragraph dealt with the murder of the Secretary of the Japanese Embassy, Bin Sugiyama, through a decree of ‘surrender’ carried by the Minister of Household Affairs Natong (那桐) - sent as a special Chinese-Qing envoy to the Emperor of Japan – expressing the regret of the Qing Dynasty. The core content of the fourth paragraph deals with graves and churches of various countries that were defiled and excavated - with Chinese replacement monuments used to cleanse the dirt and snow. The Chinese state has to pay an estimated fine of 10,000 silver taels for each place in the capital to be returned to its European design and structure, and 5,000 Silver taels for each place in other provinces. The core content of the fifth paragraph is that it is forbidden to transport arms or any kind of resources or technology specially designed for the manufacture of arms into China, and for this ban to operate for two years. The core content of the sixth paragraph is the payment of 450 million taels of silver acquired through custom charges - to various Western-friendly agencies throughout China. This money was to be viewed as a ‘loan’ granted by the Western countries to be paid back by the Chinese government with an annual interest rate of four percent, over a thirty-nine-year period of repayment in accordance with the chapters in the attached table. These financial resources were guaranteed to be distributed as follows: First, the funds received by the Xinguan – or ‘new gates’ (新关). The second, is to make money for all Changguan - or ‘common gates’ (常关). The third, is for the input of all salt administrations. The core content of the seventh paragraph, states that the realm of each embassy is for exclusive business and residential use, and is solely managed by the occupants of the embassy. Chinese citizens are not allowed to live in these territories controlled by foreigners. The Chinese state has promised that all countries with embassies should be independent, and that permanent (foreign) troops should protect the embassies. The core content of the eighth paragraph is the order to flatten the Dagu fort (and all forts) that hinder the passage from the capital to the sea. The core content of the ninth paragraph, the Chinese state promises to host, without limit, the economic and religious aims as inflicted by the various foreign countries, and to allow a free colonisation of a number of key places - at the discretion of the Chinese government - so as to ensure that there is no interruption of the channel trade or movement of people from the capital to the sea. The garrisons of the foreign countries today are confirmed as being stationed at Huangcun, Langfang, Yangcun, Tianjin, Junliangcheng, Tanggu, Lutai, Tangshan, Luanzhou, Changli, Qinhuangdao, and Shanhaiguan. The core content of the tenth paragraph states that the Qing Dynasty allowed two years to inform the prefectures and counties to issue notices stating: 1) All offenders (that is any and all members of the Boxers – actual or suspected) are to be executed through public beheading, (2) The execution procedure is to be clearly explained, (3) As the people of various countries were killed and abused, all such cities and towns will suspend civil and military examinations. (4) Provincial governors, civil and military officials, and all other officials have the responsibility to ensure safety in their respective territories. If there is a recurrence of harm to the people of various countries, or if there is another breach of contract, it must be immediately suppressed and punished, otherwise it shall be governed that staff members shall be dismissed and will never be re-employed, nor shall they be excused or given awards. The core content of the eleventh paragraph, the country of the Qing Dynasty agrees to treat the various countries in the treaties of commerce and shipping as the places where they should be reformed, and all matters related to commerce will be discussed in order to be proper and simple. The core content of the twelfth paragraph is to change the Prime Minister’s National Affairs Office to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs according to the discretion of the countries, so that Western commerce and religious influence can more easily be spread in China without hindrance. The various paragraphs in the article are adequate to the wishes of the countries, and China is willing to end the situation created by the turmoil of the summer of 1900, and the countries will follow along with their permission. Except for the defensive embassy troops, the troops of all countries will retreat from the capital on September 17th, 1901. ([Italian] Madarao "Beijing in 1900")
The indemnity involved in the "Xin Chou Treaty" is called Boxer Indemnity because 1900 is the Year of the Boxer. The compensation was calculated based on the population of China at that time, one tael per person, totalling 450 million taels. Among them, Russia 130,371,120 taels, Germany 900,705,15 taels, France 708,782,40 taels, Britain 506,205,45 taels, Japan 347.931,00 taels, the United States 329,390,55 taels, Italy 329,390,55 taels, Belgium 848,4345 taels, Austria-Hungary 400,3920 taels, Netherlands 782,100 taels, and the remaining 430,000 taels Shared by Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Norway and other countries. The annual interest is 4%, which is paid off in 39 years, with the interest being 532,238,150 taels. The principal and interest totalled 982,238,150 taels. There are still more than 20 million taels of "local compensation" in various provinces. Therefore, the total amount is more than 1 billion taels of silver. This huge sum of money is equivalent to 12 times the Qing government's annual fiscal revenue. "Until the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, the Qing government's annual fiscal revenue was generally stable at around 80 million taels. But by 1903, the annual revenue had reached 104.92 million taels; by 1908, the annual revenue reached 234.8 million taels." ([日] Mingshui "Japanese on China's Fiscal Management Policy")
"The Question of Jancivitsky" and "Wadsey Prophecy" On July 14th, 1900, the conscientious Russian journalist issued a "Jancivitsky question" in his diary: "Although the coalition treats the Chinese like this, despises them, and considers them barbarians and slaves, but I can’t tell who is more worthy of the title of barbarian, Chinese or foreigner? The Chinese, with more than 500,000 people, do not have any power. Based on the long-standing ethnic discipline that melts in the blood, in this million in a populous city, order has never been disrupted, and there has never been a commotion. It is the civilized foreigners who knocked on the doors and windows of banks, shops and government offices, robbed banks, rushed into homes, ransacked their belongings, and ruined women. When the Chinese resisted, they attacked with pistols and rifles. Who is more appropriate to call a barbarian?" On February 3rd, 1901, Wadsey predicted "On the Dividing of Chinese Affairs": "If China produces a smart and courageous figure as its sovereign in the future, it will be better able to make use of the contributions of other countries in the world and the modern cultural methods of that country, Yu believes in China’s future, and there is still endless hope.” On June 22nd, he wrote again: “If the sky is a powerful leader for China, his people can not only root out the corruption of the upper class in general, but also take advantage of the western world. Civilization, the future of China is beyond limit." In 1900, China had reached its nadir, and great men were born. Do not abandon yourself in the shallow waters of Longyou (龙游), there will eventually be an uplifting day. History is asleep, but time is awake, the world is asleep, but we are awake. At the darkest hour a hundred years ago, the Western aggressors still subconsciously awed the potential of this ancient country. In today's brand-new era, it is an inevitable historical process for the Chinese to forge ahead with confidence and to be high-spirited on the road to revival. The Chinese cannot forget 1900! The Chinese will never forget 1900! In the Year of the Gengzi 120 years ago, the Chinese nation fell into the abyss without the sky! In the Gengzi Year 120 years later, the Chinese nation has a bright future and is heading for revival!
Chinese Language Reference:
Although Britain used 'opium' grown in India as a means to unnaturally pollute the minds and bodies of the Chinese people (so that they could be more easily controlled by the European invaders), it is also true that traditional Chinese medicine has for centuries used 'opium' as a means to control psychological, emotional and physical pan. Indeed, for thousands of years 'opium' remained the ONLY naturally grown plant that could perform this task. Obviously, a doctor genuinely 'relieving' pain and thereby reducing the suffering of another human-being is very different from a European invading force within China that mis-used 'opium' to 'stupify' the minds and bodies of the already healthy masses so that they could not effectively organise a resistance to Western occupation and annexation of their country! The result of this despicable behaviour has been the literal demonisation of 'opium' when in fact when it is used in the right hands it is a very effective and legitimate medicine. Indeed, even modern Western medicine makes use of opium-derivatives in the production of the pain-killer 'morphine'.
Description of 'opium' pipe owned by Master Chan Tin Sang (1924-1993). The 'smell' and 'taste' of the last 'smoke' is still evident.
Bamboo stem (main-body) = dark brown in colour.
Copper bowl and lower stem (all one design) = Reddish-brown in colour.
Length of bamboo-stem plus copper-bowl = 19.75 Inches - 50.2 cm - 1 Foot 7.75 Inches - 0.502 Metres.
Length of bamboo-stem minus copper-bowl = 17 Inches - 43.18 - 1 foot 5 Inches - 0.43 Metres.
Copper-bowl Diameter = 1 inch - 2.5 cm
Design on lower stem situated on the copper-bowl consists of six individual dots arranged around a single central dot (forming a flower motif). Four Old Style Chinese Characters are arranged equidistance around this 'flower'. A single row of Chinese characters run in a straight-line down back of the short copper stem (immediately behind) the copper-bowl.
Translator’s Note: Reading through historical texts on the Chinese language internet (Baidu) - I came across the following true story apparently recorded in a journal or diary written by the British imperialist living within Fujian province at the time - John Charles Oswald (1856-1900) - who was responsible for running a tea house and horse-racing track! The photographs were found in the journal entry but it is not clear whether he took them or if they were taken for him. This episode – essentially a legal case – took place in 1895, and although cameras were known, there numbers were few in China. Such devices would have been considered a very rare and specialised piece of technology. However, the photographs themselves are of a very good quality considering the time they were taken. I suspect the pictures were more or less ‘posed’ for and that the ‘criminals’ had to participate in sessions despite all being sentenced to death and scheduled to be killed on the day of the photographing! The Emperor of China tried to keep out all foreigners, but they managed to penetrate the border guards, they were directed to Fujian province, which was full of robust and loyal Chinese people who knew how to ‘control’ and ‘limit’ the activities of these visitors. These English and American visitors ended-up in exactly this place, despite their dominating and oppressive attitudes and behaviours. People from Fujian province often travelled to the Island of Okinawa – an ancient Chinese settlement – and it is their Chinese martial arts which eventually evolved into ‘Karate-Do’ - now considered a ‘Japanese’ art. In these photographs we see the grinding poverty of the ordinary Chinese people, and can see that two men entrusted by the Authorities to carry-out executions – despite being relatively well-dressed – nevertheless, lack any semblance of shoes or socks! From their stance-work it is obvious that traditional Chinese martial arts were brutally effective in practice rather than ‘flowery’ or ‘elaborate’ in theory. ACW (4.6.2021)
Chinese prisoners who killed foreigners in the late Qing Dynasty - were forced to the execution-ground after a simple interrogation (with no legal defence). Four suspects in the ‘Gutian Religious Case’ include Du Zhuyi (杜朱衣), Zheng Huai (郑淮), Liu Xiangxing (刘祥兴) and Zhang Ch (张赤). In the early morning of August 1st, 1895, more than one-hundred members of the "Piety Association" (斋会 - Zhai Hui) situatin in Gutian County, Fujian Province - attacked Mount Hua - where British and American missionaries lived, resulting in the deaths of eleven British missionaries and other female Christian assistants. Many other people were injured. This incident became known as the "Gutian Religious Case" in the history books. This is one of the two largest religious-orientated single cases that happened during the late Qing Dynasty – with the other being the "Tianjin Religious Case" which happened in 1870. Western missionaries aggressively penetrated and took-over large parts of China and used brutality to force Chinese people to ‘convert’ to a religious they neither wanted nor understood. Every so often, this foreign aggression and brutality was met with ‘resistance’ primarily from the embittered peasant community – which generally paid dearly for its loyalty and bravery.
The suspects in the "Gutian Religious Case" were arrested by the Qing government. This group of photographs was found in a recently discovered album left by the Englishman John Charles Oswald (1856-1900), which recorded key scenes relating to the trial of the suspects. Oswald once ran a tea and horse racing business in Fuzhou, and it is not certain that these photographs were taken by him personally. After the "Zhaihui" congregation killed people, they robbed the missionary's residence and set fire to it.
The scene after the looting of the British and American missionaries' residence was very bloody. In the late Qing Dynasty, missionaries went deep into China to preach, and there were often conflicts between the church and the local people. The involvement of missionaries in the opium trade, forced land leases, and illegal act of shielding the faithful aroused the anger of the local people. The Gutian "Zhaihui" and the church have had long-standing grievances, with both encroaching upon the other’s territory. The church employed all kinds of illegal methods but continuously got away with their crimes – which included rape of Chinese women and girls. If the Chinese Authorities dared to act against this foreign criminality, then the foreign governments would often send in their armed forces and make matters far worse. When the ‘Piety Associations’ fought-back – they were invariably ‘blamed’ when caught and issued with the severest of punishments demanded by the church missionaries – who enjoyed watching the spectacle of scared men kneeling to be ‘beheaded’!
After the incident, foreigners in China reacted strongly. The British and American envoys in Beijing protested to the Qing Court and sent warships to intimidate along the coast of Fujian. The "New York Tribune" of the United States even clamoured to put China "under the gun" and subject it to "the most severe sanctions."
Du Zhuyi - one of the main criminals in the case - was kept in a cage. In his early years, he repeatedly failed the exams, and then he despaired of his career and joined the "Zhaihui". Because he couldn't understand the arbitrary behaviour of foreigners, he rebelled against their corruption. The "Zhaihui" is mostly comprised of the poor people at the bottom of society, and a small number of frustrated intellectuals and small businessmen.
The British who died were buried in Fuzhou. On August 5th, Emperor Guangxu decreed, "The case is serious. The generals (Bian Baoquan, Governor of Fujian and Zhejiang Province, General Qingyu of Fuzhou) should send troops to severely deal with the perpetrators and be punished in accordance with the law; The church residence was properly protected by the stern magistrates, and there was no need to do anything else," which shows the attitude of the pro-Western Qing Court.
Chinese, British, and American personnel involved in the investigation and trial of the case. On August 13th, an investigation team composed of British and American diplomats, military officers, and missionaries went to Gutian to investigate the incident and participate in the Qing government’s trial of the arrested suspects. Under their pressure, the Qing government offered high rewards and arrested hundreds of people. Among them, a large number of innocent people were implicated for being allegedly reported by others.
The scene before the execution. In order to quell the adverse effects caused by the case as soon as possible, the Qing government adopted a method of rapid arrest and rapid trial. The procedure was very simple, and the participants in the confirmed cases were immediately sentenced. By October 18th, the trial was completed in just over two months, and 92 people were finally determined to be guilty, of which 26 were sentenced to death, 17 were enlisted in the military, 5 were imprisoned for life, 27 were imprisoned for 10 years, and 5 were imprisoned for 5 years. 5 people to hold the stone pier for 3 years, 5 people hold the stone pier for 6 months, and 2 people hold the stone pier for 2 months.
The executioners who carried-out the death penalties. During the trial of the case, the British and American authorities did not claim compensation, but only demanded that the perpetrators be punished. This is a rare case in modern history that caused heavy losses without financial compensation. Reference materials: Liu Guoping, "Research on Gutian Religious Cases in 1895", Yang Guanghui, "Public Opinion and Modern Religious Cases".
Original Chinese Language Source Article:
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.