For sake of simplicity, practitioners of Taijiquan access this method through a teacher who specialises in a particular ‘Form’ or ‘Type’ of Taijiquan – often inclusive of its own historical and ideological baggage – and which is wedded to a specific ‘Frame’ of reference, in this instance, quite literally! I was taught both the ‘Old’ Long Yang and the ultra-modern Yang 24 Step ‘Beijing’ Short-Form. To the mind of my teacher – Master Chan Tin Sang (1924-1993) - this combination represented the best philosophy from both ‘Old’ and ‘New’ China and re-emphasised the ‘flexibility’ of approach with the Yang Family conceived of and practiced Taijiquan (which built upon the ‘Chen’ Form Foundation and in many ways ‘Improved’ upon it – and I say this as a ‘Chan’)! Master Chan Tin Sang trained in Hong Kong with a visiting Yang Family member when young (prior to WWII) and I have inherited a ‘signed’ Taijiquan book given to our ‘Chan’ Family from the Yang Family.
Old ‘Long’ Yang Taijiquan is a truly magnificent Form that was developed in a feudal cultural milieu that was certainly very ‘martial’ in its manifestation and long-term logic. Training was related to Clan-Name and Clan-Association. within this, there was a bewildering system of layers of access all designed to ‘keep people out’ of the inner core of the organisation. What is often either ‘forgotten’ or ‘not known’ is that a number of versions of the style would be taught be different branches of the family, with junior males teaching a watered-down or incomplete version, and senior members teaching full the genuine method. As each version was treated as ‘genuine’ and of the ‘utmost value’ - the junior teachers valued their incomplete version often NOT knowing where they fitted-in in the over-all scheme of things in the Clan Association structure, as everything was designed to ‘protect’ the Clan and everyone in it. Some of these teachers of incomplete styles still managed to find fame and fortune because they naturally developed those parts of technical skill which were missing. Quite often, I am told, after a lifetime spent engaging in and winning numerous ‘honour fights’. It seems that psychological and physical evolution tends to ‘fill-in’ any missing gaps in a style – often generating ‘new’ styles!
All the ‘Snake Creeps Down’ within the Old Yang Long ‘Form’ is bias toward bending the right knee and straightening the left-leg! It was assumed (in the 19th century) that the only way for an Old Yang Taijiquan ‘Form’ practitioner to learn ‘Snake Creeps Down’ with a bent left-knee and a straight right-leg forward – is to also learn and master the single and double-straight sword (Jian) ‘Forms’ - within which all ‘Sneek Creeps Down’ stances are bias toward the right-leg being straight! This study is assumed to take at least 20-years alongside the Old Yang Taijiquan ‘Form’. Although we respect tis tradition – the Yang 24 Step ‘Beijing’ Short-Form contains (in its 24 postures) Snake Creeps Down left and right – speeds-up this learning process immeasurably! We must not fight progress – but find our place within it. What is important – and a lesson acquired from the Yang Family – is that a practitioner of Taijiquan should alter and adjust their practice by exploring different ‘Frames’ - which are ‘high’, ‘middle’ and ‘low’. A Taijiquan ‘Frame’ is measured by how far the elbows and knees are ‘deployed’ away from the torso.
With a ‘high’ Frame the elbows and knees are ‘close’ (but not too close) with the stance being ‘high’ (with the feet being perhaps three-foot apart). For a ‘middling’ Frame the elbows and knees are a little further away from the torso (with the feet being perhaps four-foot apart), whereas for the ‘Long’ Frame the elbows and knees are the furthest apart from the torso (with the feet being perhaps five-foot apart). Advanced Taijiquan practitioners often vary the ‘Frame’ they are using as they move through a single repetition of a Taijiqian ‘Form’ and experiencing no difficulty or contradiction. The ‘intention’ in the mind regulates the flow of Jing, qi and Shen as and when the situation requires – which requires the distance between the bones to be increased or decreased, etc. Of course, all this is approximate and a true measure of a ‘Frame’ is dependent upon a) the size of the body in question, and b) the development of inner and outer ‘awareness’ possessed by the practitioner. All types of Frame should be explored and eventually ‘mastered’!
The external method of withdrawing blood flow away from the surface of the body involves either bathing in very cold water – or rubbing ice all over the body. The cold closes the capillaries and diverts blood flow away from the surface skin area as if the outside environment were very cold and the body had to defend itself against the possibility of ‘freezing’. Blood flow (as ‘heat’) is diverted away from the surface area and into the inner organs to keep the much more important inner organs functionally healthily. For fighting that could risk the possibility of the surface body becoming bruised or cut – with drawing the blood supply away from the surface skin is an important attribute. Within the Ch’an Dao Style we do not make use of the this ‘external’ version of closing the surface capillaries using ‘ice’ or ‘cold water’, indeed, we do not any external substance. We practice a Hakka Gongfu (internal) meditational method which ‘withdraws’ blood supply from the capillaries as a matter of cultivated ‘will-power’. Just as the mind conceives the requirement for the outer blood flow to be diverted toward the inner organs – the body makes the adjustments. As sparring of this kind traditionally occurs between 10 am-12 pm – the Hakka Gongfu practitioner often finds the blood flow habitually ‘withdrawing’ in the morning so that, for instance, it would be difficult for a doctor or a nurse to take a sample of the blood from the arms or hands – as the capillaries are ‘closed’ at the surface where the needle penetrates. Blood flow returns to the surface of the skin as the body heads into the afternoon – unless a sparring match or honour match is set to happen. This prevents extensive bruising and cuts that might lose a lot of blood. Following the meditation usually means that the capillaries will close regularly every morning and open in the afternoon. Very advanced Masters of the Hakka Gongfu martial arts have been said to stop the extensive bleeding often associated with terrible wounds such as having hands or feet partly or fully chopped-off! Although unconscious this ability has saved their lives.
Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (b. 1967) - Lineage (Generational) Inheritor of the Ch'an Dao Hakka Gongfu System.