I have been studying rather 'involved' Chinese language texts regarding the DNA distribution of populations throughout China - focusing on the Fujian area. I have carefully read through and translated the following academic text(s) - word-for-word - so that the data is accurate and can be used for academic reference. Modern Chinese geneticists tend to seek Western verification of their findings so that a joint consensus can be built. The following extract is revealing:
"Molecular biological research has discovered that some 3,000-2,000 years ago the ancient population of Taiwan possessed a close genetic relationship to the following two populations of Mainland China:
a) The Zhuang-Dong (壮侗) speaking population.
b) The Austronesians (南岛语 - Nan Dao Yu) - genetically constructed through the 'mixing' of (non-Chinese) Northern agricultural people.
The genetic ancestors of these two groups expanded southward, spreading Austronesian and Zhuang-Dong linguistic and genetic markers amongst the Austro-Asiatic populations they encountered.”
Furthermore, Zhang Huqin (张虎勤) told reporters that Peter Bellwood’s research has also accurately charted this genetic expansion from South China, through Taiwan and onward toward the island populations of Oceania. These ancient people originated in what is today the 'Fujian' province of Southeast China around 5,000 years ago. They spread to Taiwan (and nearby islands) between 5,000-3,000 years ago and then onwards to the Pacific Islands around 3,000-1,000 years.'
[China Social Sciences Network] Ancient DNA technology analyses the reproduction and migration of Chinese civilization - Interview with Professor Zhang Huqin, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University - Source: Jiaotong University News Date : 2022-10-06
As for three (3) genetic haplogroups that comprise the majority (90%) of the modern Fujian population (with the other 10% being closely genetically related despite diverse cultural differences) - I have discovered the following data from work carried-out at Fudan University:
1) O-M119 - Yi-Yue (夷越) Group - linked to the 'Dong-Yi' (东夷) and 'Bai-Yue' (百越) ethnic groups.
2) O-M268 - Miao-Man (苗蛮) Group - linked to 'Nannan' (南蛮) and 'Miao-Yao' (苗瑶) ethnic groups.
3) O-M122 - Han-Cang (汉藏) Sino-Tibetan Group - linked to the 'Hua-Xia' (华夏), the 'Cang' (藏) Tibetan and the 'Qiang' (羌).
Where did the Fujianese's Minyue genes go?
Incidentally, the 'Chinese' (Hakka) genes I carry are linked to the 'Qiang' ethnic group (the Tibetan presence in Fujian might explain why Tibetan gongfu is said to be practiced in the area. The Tibetans invaded larges swathes of Southern and Western China around 1,000 years ago and presumably spread out from there). My partner's ethnic Chinese genes (Hakka) are linked to the Evenk people of Siberia. Culture and language link groups of people together despite their DNA sometimes being vastly different! All genetic studies state that Fujian was substantially and permanently settled 'North to South' - but that other (smaller populations) of people traversed into the area from the West and East as well as by boat from the South - many 'sharing' the same genes as those calling themselves the 'Chinese'. As these populations were unstable - they often never survived or moved on to other areas, etc.